How to do case insensitive string comparison?


How do I perform case insensitive string comparison in JavaScript?

The simplest way to do it (if you're not worried about special Unicode characters) is to call toUpperCase:

var areEqual = string1.toUpperCase() === string2.toUpperCase();

EDIT: This answer was originally added 9 years ago. Today you should use localeCompare with the sensitivity: 'accent' option:

function ciEquals(a, b) {
    return typeof a === 'string' && typeof b === 'string'
        ? a.localeCompare(b, undefined, { sensitivity: 'accent' }) === 0
        : a === b;
}

console.log("'a' = 'a'?", ciEquals('a', 'a'));
console.log("'AaA' = 'aAa'?", ciEquals('AaA', 'aAa'));
console.log("'a' = 'á'?", ciEquals('a', 'á'));
console.log("'a' = 'b'?", ciEquals('a', 'b'));

The { sensitivity: 'accent' } tells localeCompare() to treat two variants of the same base letter as the same unless they have different accents (as in the third example) above.

Alternatively, you can use { sensitivity: 'base' }, which treats two characters as equivalent as long as their base character is the same (so A would be treated as equivalent to á).

Note that the third parameter of localeCompare is not supported in IE10 or lower or certain mobile browsers (see the compatibility chart on the page linked above), so if you need to support those browsers, you'll need some kind of fallback:

function ciEqualsInner(a, b) {
    return a.localeCompare(b, undefined, { sensitivity: 'accent' }) === 0;
}

function ciEquals(a, b) {
    if (typeof a !== 'string' || typeof b !== 'string') {
        return a === b;
    }

    //      v--- feature detection
    return ciEqualsInner('A', 'a')
        ? ciEqualsInner(a, b)
        : /*  fallback approach here  */;
}

Original answer

The best way to do a case insensitive comparison in JavaScript is to use RegExp match() method with the i flag.

Case-insensitive search

When both strings being compared are variables (not constants), then it's a little more complicated 'cause you need to generate a RegExp from the string but passing the string to RegExp constructor can result in incorrect matches or failed matches if the string has special regex characters in it.

If you care about internationalization don't use toLowerCase() or toUpperCase() as it doesn't provide accurate case-insensitive comparisons in all languages.

http://www.i18nguy.com/unicode/turkish-i18n.html


As said in recent comments, string::localCompare supports case insensitive comparisons (among other powerful things).

Here's a simple example

'xyz'.localeCompare('XyZ', undefined, { sensitivity: 'base' }); // returns 0

And a generic function you could use

function equalsIgnoringCase(text, other) {
    return text.localeCompare(other, undefined, { sensitivity: 'base' }) === 0;
}

Note that instead of undefined you should probably enter the specific locale you are working with. This is important as denoted in the MDN docs

in Swedish, ä and a are separate base letters

Sensitivity options

Sensitivity options tabulated from MDN

Browser support

As of time of posting, UC Browser for Android and Opera Mini do not support locale and options parameters. Please check https://caniuse.com/#search=localeCompare for up to date info.


With the help of regular expression also we can achieve.

(/keyword/i).test(source)

/i is for ignore case. If not necessary we can ignore and test for NOT case sensitive match like

(/keyword/).test(source)

Remember that casing is a locale specific operation. Depending on scenario you may want to take that in to account. For example, if you are comparing names of two people you may want to consider locale but if you are comparing machine generated values such as UUID then you might not. This why I use following function in my utils library (note that type checking is not included for performance reason).

function compareStrings (string1, string2, ignoreCase, useLocale) {
    if (ignoreCase) {
        if (useLocale) {
            string1 = string1.toLocaleLowerCase();
            string2 = string2.toLocaleLowerCase();
        }
        else {
            string1 = string1.toLowerCase();
            string2 = string2.toLowerCase();
        }
    }

    return string1 === string2;
}

I have recently created a micro library that provides case-insensitive string helpers: https://github.com/nickuraltsev/ignore-case. (It uses toUpperCase internally.)

var ignoreCase = require('ignore-case');

ignoreCase.equals('FOO', 'Foo'); // => true
ignoreCase.startsWith('foobar', 'FOO'); // => true
ignoreCase.endsWith('foobar', 'BaR'); // => true
ignoreCase.includes('AbCd', 'c'); // => true
ignoreCase.indexOf('AbCd', 'c'); // => 2

if you are concerned about the direction of the inequality (perhaps you want to sort a list) you pretty-much have to do case-conversion, and as there are more lowercase characters in unicode than uppercase toLowerCase is probably the best conversion to use.

function my_strcasecmp( a, b ) 
{
    if((a+'').toLowerCase() > (b+'').toLowerCase()) return 1  
    if((a+'').toLowerCase() < (b+'').toLowerCase()) return -1
    return 0
}

Javascript seems to use locale "C" for string comparisons so the resulting ordering will be ugly if the strings contain other than ASCII letters. there's not much that can be done about that without doing much more detailed inspection of the strings.


Suppose we want to find the string variable needle in the string variable haystack. There are three gotchas:

  1. Internationalized applications should avoid string.toUpperCase and string.toLowerCase. Use a regular expression which ignores case instead. For example, var needleRegExp = new RegExp(needle, "i"); followed by needleRegExp.test(haystack).
  2. In general, you might not know the value of needle. Be careful that needle does not contain any regular expression special characters. Escape these using needle.replace(/[-[\]{}()*+?.,\\^$|#\s]/g, "\\$&");.
  3. In other cases, if you want to precisely match needle and haystack, just ignoring case, make sure to add "^" at the start and "$" at the end of your regular expression constructor.

Taking points (1) and (2) into consideration, an example would be:

var haystack = "A. BAIL. Of. Hay.";
var needle = "bail.";
var needleRegExp = new RegExp(needle.replace(/[-[\]{}()*+?.,\\^$|#\s]/g, "\\$&"), "i");
var result = needleRegExp.test(haystack);
if (result) {
    // Your code here
}

There are two ways for case insensitive comparison:

  1. Convert strings to upper case and then compare them using the strict operator (===). How strict operator treats operands read stuff at: http://www.thesstech.com/javascript/relational-logical-operators
  2. Pattern matching using string methods:

Use the "search" string method for case insensitive search. Read about search and other string methods at: http://www.thesstech.com/pattern-matching-using-string-methods

<!doctype html>
  <html>
    <head>
      <script>

        // 1st way

        var a = "apple";
        var b = "APPLE";  
        if (a.toUpperCase() === b.toUpperCase()) {
          alert("equal");
        }

        //2nd way

        var a = " Null and void";
        document.write(a.search(/null/i)); 

      </script>
    </head>
</html>

Lots of answers here, but I like to add a sollution based on extending the String lib:

String.prototype.equalIgnoreCase = function(str)
{
    return (str != null 
            && typeof str === 'string'
            && this.toUpperCase() === str.toUpperCase());
}

This way you can just use it like you do in Java!

Example:

var a = "hello";
var b = "HeLLo";
var c = "world";

if (a.equalIgnoreCase(b)) {
    document.write("a == b");
}
if (a.equalIgnoreCase(c)) {
    document.write("a == c");
}
if (!b.equalIgnoreCase(c)) {
    document.write("b != c");
}

Output will be:

"a == b"
"b != c"

String.prototype.equalIgnoreCase = function(str) {
  return (str != null &&
    typeof str === 'string' &&
    this.toUpperCase() === str.toUpperCase());
}


var a = "hello";
var b = "HeLLo";
var c = "world";

if (a.equalIgnoreCase(b)) {
  document.write("a == b");
  document.write("<br>");
}
if (a.equalIgnoreCase(c)) {
  document.write("a == c");
}
if (!b.equalIgnoreCase(c)) {
  document.write("b != c");
}


str = 'Lol', str2 = 'lOl', regex = new RegExp('^' + str + '$', 'i');
if (regex.test(str)) {
    console.log("true");
}

If both strings are of the same known locale, you may want to use Intl.Collator object like this:

function equalIgnoreCase(s1: string, s2: string) {
    return new Intl.Collator("en-US", { sensitivity: "base" }).compare(s1, s2) === 0;
}

Obviously, you may want to cache the Collator for better efficiency.

The advantages of this approach is that it should be much faster than using RegExps and is based on an extremely customizable (see description of locales and options constructor parameters in the article above) set of ready-to-use collators.


Use RegEx for string match or comparison.

In JavaScript, you can use match() for string comparison, don't forget to put iin RegEx.

Example:

var matchString = "Test";
if (matchString.match(/test/i)) {
  alert('String matched');
}
else {
 alert('String not matched');
}

I wrote a extension. very trivial

if (typeof String.prototype.isEqual!= 'function') {
    String.prototype.isEqual = function (str){
        return this.toUpperCase()==str.toUpperCase();
     };
}

Even this question have already answered. I have a different approach to use RegExp and match to ignore case sensitive. Please see my link https://jsfiddle.net/marchdave/7v8bd7dq/27/

$("#btnGuess").click(guessWord);

  function guessWord() {

   var letter = $("#guessLetter").val();
   var word = 'ABC';
   var pattern = RegExp(letter, 'gi'); // pattern: /a/gi

   var result = word.match(pattern);
   alert('Ignore case sensitive:' + result);

  }

How about NOT throwing exceptions and NOT using slow regex?

return str1 != null && str2 != null 
    && typeof str1 === 'string' && typeof str2 === 'string'
    && str1.toUpperCase() === str2.toUpperCase();

The above snippet assumes you don't want to match if either string is null or undefined.

If you want to match null/undefined, then:

return (str1 == null && str2 == null)
    || (str1 != null && str2 != null 
        && typeof str1 === 'string' && typeof str2 === 'string'
        && str1.toUpperCase() === str2.toUpperCase());

If for some reason you care about undefined vs null:

return (str1 === undefined && str2 === undefined)
    || (str1 === null && str2 === null)
    || (str1 != null && str2 != null 
        && typeof str1 === 'string' && typeof str2 === 'string'
        && str1.toUpperCase() === str2.toUpperCase());

Since no answer clearly provided a simple code snippet for using RegExp, here's my attempt:

function compareInsensitive(str1, str2){ 
  return typeof str1 === 'string' && 
    typeof str2 === 'string' && 
    new RegExp("^" + str1.replace(/[-\/\\^$*+?.()|[\]{}]/g, '\\$&') + "$", "i").test(str2);
}

It has several advantages:

  1. Verifies parameter type (any non-string parameter, like undefined for example, would crash an expression like str1.toUpperCase()).
  2. Does not suffer from possible internationalization issues.
  3. Escapes the RegExp string.

This is an improved version of this answer.

String.equal = function (s1, s2, ignoreCase, useLocale) {
    if (s1 == null || s2 == null)
        return false;

    if (!ignoreCase) {
        if (s1.length !== s2.length)
            return false;

        return s1 === s2;
    }

    if (useLocale) {
        if (useLocale.length)
            return s1.toLocaleLowerCase(useLocale) === s2.toLocaleLowerCase(useLocale)
        else
            return s1.toLocaleLowerCase() === s2.toLocaleLowerCase()
    }
    else {
        if (s1.length !== s2.length)
            return false;

        return s1.toLowerCase() === s2.toLowerCase();
    }
}



Usages & tests:

String.equal = function (s1, s2, ignoreCase, useLocale) {
    if (s1 == null || s2 == null)
        return false;

    if (!ignoreCase) {
        if (s1.length !== s2.length)
            return false;

        return s1 === s2;
    }

    if (useLocale) {
        if (useLocale.length)
            return s1.toLocaleLowerCase(useLocale) === s2.toLocaleLowerCase(useLocale)
        else
            return s1.toLocaleLowerCase() === s2.toLocaleLowerCase()
    }
    else {
        if (s1.length !== s2.length)
            return false;

        return s1.toLowerCase() === s2.toLowerCase();
    }
}

// If you don't mind extending the prototype.
String.prototype.equal = function(string2, ignoreCase, useLocale) {
  return String.equal(this.valueOf(), string2, ignoreCase, useLocale);
}

// ------------------ TESTS ----------------------
console.log("Tests...");

console.log('Case sensitive 1');
var result = "Abc123".equal("Abc123");
console.assert(result === true);

console.log('Case sensitive 2');
result = "aBC123".equal("Abc123");
console.assert(result === false);

console.log('Ignore case');
result = "AbC123".equal("aBc123", true);
console.assert(result === true);

console.log('Ignore case + Current locale');
result = "AbC123".equal("aBc123", true);
console.assert(result === true);

console.log('Turkish test 1 (ignore case, en-US)');
result = "IiiI".equal("?i?I", true, "en-US");
console.assert(result === false);

console.log('Turkish test 2 (ignore case, tr-TR)');
result = "IiiI".equal("?i?I", true, "tr-TR");
console.assert(result === true);

console.log('Turkish test 3 (case sensitive, tr-TR)');
result = "IiiI".equal("?i?I", false, "tr-TR");
console.assert(result === false);

console.log('null-test-1');
result = "AAA".equal(null);
console.assert(result === false);

console.log('null-test-2');
result = String.equal(null, "BBB");
console.assert(result === false);

console.log('null-test-3');
result = String.equal(null, null);
console.assert(result === false);


Convert both to lower (only once for performance reasons) and compare them with ternary operator in a single line:

function strcasecmp(s1,s2){
    s1=(s1+'').toLowerCase();
    s2=(s2+'').toLowerCase();
    return s1>s2?1:(s1<s2?-1:0);
}

If you know you're dealing with ascii text then you can just use a uppercase/lowercase character offset comparison.

Just make sure the string your "perfect" string (the one you want to match against) is lowercase:

const CHARS_IN_BETWEEN = 32;
const LAST_UPPERCASE_CHAR = 90; // Z
function strMatchesIgnoreCase(lowercaseMatch, value) {
    let i = 0, matches = lowercaseMatch.length === value.length;
    while (matches && i < lowercaseMatch.length) {
        const a = lowercaseMatch.charCodeAt(i);
        const A = a - CHARS_IN_BETWEEN;
        const b = value.charCodeAt(i);
        const B = b + ((b > LAST_UPPERCASE_CHAR) ? -CHARS_IN_BETWEEN : CHARS_IN_BETWEEN);
        matches = a === b // lowerA === b
            || A === b // upperA == b
            || a === B // lowerA == ~b
            || A === B; // upperA == ~b
        i++;
    }
    return matches;
}

I like this quick shorthand variation -

export const equalsIgnoreCase = (str1, str2) => {
    return (!str1 && !str2) || (str1 && str2 && str1.toUpperCase() == str2.toUpperCase())
}

Quick in processing, and does what it is intended to.


This javascript library seems to provide lot of string operations. It's very convenient to use

How to install

npm install --save string

Import

var S = require('string');

Ignorecase Compare String

var isEqual = S('ignoreCase').equalsIgnoreCase('IGNORECASE')