Pass Variables by Reference in Javascript

How do I pass variables by reference in JavaScript? I have 3 variables that I want to perform several operations to, so I want to put them in a for loop and perform the operations to each one.

pseudo code:

myArray = new Array(var1, var2, var3);
for (var x = 0; x < myArray.length; x++){
    //do stuff to the array
//now do stuff to the updated vars

What is the best way to do this?

There is no "pass by reference" available in JavaScript. You can pass an object (which is to say, you can pass-by-value a reference to an object) and then have a function modify the object contents:

function alterObject(obj) { = "goodbye";

var myObj = { foo: "hello world" };


alert(; // "goodbye" instead of "hello world"

You can iterate over the properties of an array with a numeric index and modify each cell of the array, if you want.

var arr = [1, 2, 3];

for (var i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) { 
    arr[i] = arr[i] + 1; 

It's important to note that "pass-by-reference" is a very specific term. It does not mean simply that it's possible to pass a reference to a modifiable object. Instead, it means that it's possible to pass a simple variable in such a way as to allow a function to modify that value in the calling context. So:

 function swap(a, b) {
   var tmp = a;
   a = b;
   b = tmp; //assign tmp to b

 var x = 1, y = 2;
 swap(x, y);

 alert("x is " + x + ", y is " + y); // "x is 1, y is 2"

In a language like C++, it's possible to do that because that language does (sort-of) have pass-by-reference.

edit — this recently (March 2015) blew up on Reddit again over a blog post similar to mine mentioned below, though in this case about Java. It occurred to me while reading the back-and-forth in the Reddit comments that a big part of the confusion stems from the unfortunate collision involving the word "reference". The terminology "pass by reference" and "pass by value" predates the concept of having "objects" to work with in programming languages. It's really not about objects at all; it's about function parameters, and specifically how function parameters are "connected" (or not) to the calling environment. In particular, note that in a true pass-by-reference language — one that does involve objects — one would still have the ability to modify object contents, and it would look pretty much exactly like it does in JavaScript. However, one would also be able to modify the object reference in the calling environment, and that's the key thing that you can't do in JavaScript. A pass-by-reference language would pass not the reference itself, but a reference to the reference.

edithere is a blog post on the topic. (Note the comment to that post that explains that C++ doesn't really have pass-by-reference. That is true. What C++ does have, however, is the ability to create references to plain variables, either explicitly at the point of function invocation to create a pointer, or implicitly when calling functions whose argument type signature calls for that to be done. Those are the key things JavaScript doesn't support.)

  1. primitive type variables like strings and numbers are always passed by value.
  2. Arrays and Objects are passed by reference or by value based on these conditions:

    • if you are setting the value of an object or array it is Pass by Value.

      object1 = {prop: "car"}; array1 = [1,2,3];

    • if you are changing a property value of an object or array then it is Pass by Reference.

      object1.prop = "car"; array1[0] = 9;


function passVar(obj1, obj2, num) {
    obj1.prop = "laptop"; // will CHANGE original
    obj2 = { prop: "computer" }; //will NOT affect original
    num = num + 1; // will NOT affect original

var object1 = {
    prop: "car"
var object2 = {
    prop: "bike"
var number1 = 10;

passVar(object1, object2, number1);
console.log(object1); //output: Object {item:"laptop"}
console.log(object2); //output: Object {item:"bike"}
console.log(number1); //ouput: 10

Workaround to pass variable like by reference:

var a = 1;
inc = function(variableName) {
  window[variableName] += 1;


alert(a); // 2


yup, actually you can do it without access global

inc = (function () {
    var variableName = 0;

    var init = function () {
        variableName += 1;

    return init;


Simple Object

var ref = { value: 1 };

function Foo(x) {


alert(ref.value); // Alert: 3

Custom Object

Object rvar

function rvar (name, value, context) {
    if (this instanceof rvar) {
        this.value = value;
        Object.defineProperty(this, 'name', { value: name });
        Object.defineProperty(this, 'hasValue', { get: function () { return this.value !== undefined; } });
        if ((value !== undefined) && (value !== null))
            this.constructor = value.constructor;
        this.toString = function () { return this.value + ''; };
    } else {
        if (!rvar.refs)
            rvar.refs = {};
        if (!context)
            context = window;
        // Private
        rvar.refs[name] = new rvar(name, value);
        // Public
        Object.defineProperty(context, name, {
            get: function () { return rvar.refs[name]; },
            set: function (v) { rvar.refs[name].value = v; },
            configurable: true

        return context[name];

Variable Declaration

test_ref = 5; // test_ref.value = 5


rvar('test_ref', 5); // test_ref.value = 5

Test Code

test_ref_number = 5;
function Fn1 (v) { v.value = 100; }
console.log("test_ref_number = 5;");
console.log("function Fn1 (v) { v.value = 100; }");
console.log('test_ref_number.value === 5', test_ref_number.value === 5);
console.log(" ");

console.log('test_ref_number.value === 100', test_ref_number.value === 100);
console.log(" ");

console.log('test_ref_number.value === 101', test_ref_number.value === 101);
console.log(" ");

test_ref_number = test_ref_number - 10;
console.log("test_ref_number = test_ref_number - 10;");
console.log('test_ref_number.value === 91', test_ref_number.value === 91);

console.log(" ");
console.log(" ");

rvar('test_ref_str', 'a');
console.log("rvar('test_ref_str', 'a');");
console.log('test_ref_str.value === "a"', test_ref_str.value === 'a');
console.log(" ");

test_ref_str += 'bc';
console.log("test_ref_str += 'bc';");
console.log('test_ref_str.value === "abc"', test_ref_str.value === 'abc');

Test Console Result

test_ref_number = 5;
function Fn1 (v) { v.value = 100; }
test_ref_number.value === 5 true

test_ref_number.value === 100 true

test_ref_number.value === 101 true

test_ref_number = test_ref_number - 10;
test_ref_number.value === 91 true


rvar('test_ref_str', 'a');
test_ref_str.value === "a" true

test_ref_str += 'bc';
test_ref_str.value === "abc" true 

Yet another approach to pass any (local, primitive) variables by reference is by wrapping variable with closure "on the fly" by eval. This also works with "use strict". (Note: be aware that eval is not friendly to JS optimizers, also missing quotes around variable name may cause unpredictive results)

"use strict"

//return text that will reference variable by name (by capturing that variable to closure)
function byRef(varName){
    return "({get value(){return "+varName+";}, set value(v){"+varName+"=v;}})";


//assign argument by reference
function modifyArgument(argRef, multiplier){
    argRef.value = argRef.value * multiplier;


var x = 10;

alert("x before: " + x);
modifyArgument(eval(byRef("x")), 42);
alert("x after: " + x);


Live sample

There's actually a pretty sollution:

function updateArray(context, targetName, callback) {
    context[targetName] = context[targetName].map(callback);

var myArray = ['a', 'b', 'c'];
updateArray(this, 'myArray', item => {return '_' + item});

console.log(myArray); //(3) ["_a", "_b", "_c"]

I've been playing around with syntax to do this sort of thing, but it requires some helpers that are a little unusual. It starts with not using 'var' at all, but a simple 'DECLARE' helper that creates a local variable and defines a scope for it via an anonymous callback. By controlling how variables are declared, we can choose to wrap them into objects so that they can always be passed by reference, essentially. This is similar to one of the Eduardo Cuomo's answer above, but the solution below does not require using strings as variable identifiers. Here's some minimal code to show the concept.

function Wrapper(val){
    this.VAL = val;
Wrapper.prototype.toString = function(){
    return this.VAL.toString();

function DECLARE(val, callback){
    var valWrapped = new Wrapper(val);    

function INC(ref){
    if(ref && ref.hasOwnProperty('VAL')){
        ref++;//or maybe throw here instead?

    return ref;

DECLARE(5, function(five){ //consider this line the same as 'let five = 5'
console.log("five is now " + five);
INC(five); // increment
console.log("five is incremented to " + five);

actually it is really easy,

the problem is understanding that once passing classic arguments, you are scoped into another, read-only zone.

solutions is to pass the arguments using JavaScript's object-oriented design,

it is the same as putting the args in a global/scoped variable, but better...

function action(){
  /* process this.arg, modification allowed */

action.arg = [ ["empty-array"],"some string",0x100,"last argument" ];

you can also promise stuff up to enjoy the well-known chain: here is the whole thing, with promise-like structure

function action(){
  /* process this.arg, modification allowed */
  this.arg = ["a","b"];

action.setArg = function(){this.arg = arguments; return this;}

action.setArg(["empty-array"],"some string",0x100,"last argument")()

or better yet.. action.setArg(["empty-array"],"some string",0x100,"last argument").call()

I personally dislike the "pass by reference" functionality offered by various programming languages. Perhaps that's because I am just discovering the concepts of functional programming, but I always get goosebumps when I see functions that cause side effects (like manipulating parameters passed by reference). I personally strongly embrace the "single responsibility" principle.

IMHO, a function should return just one result/value using the return keyword. Instead of modifying a parameter/argument, I would just return the modified parameter/argument value and leave any desired reassignments up to the calling code.

But sometimes (hopefully very rarely), it is necessary to return two or more result values from the same function. In that case, I would opt to include all those resulting values in a single structure or object. Again, processing any reassignments should be up to the calling code.


Suppose passing parameters would be supported by using a special keyword like 'ref' in the argument list. My code might look something like this:

//The Function
function doSomething(ref value) {
    value = "Bar";

//The Calling Code
var value = "Foo";
console.log(value); //Bar

Instead, I would actually prefer to do something like this:

//The Function
function doSomething(value) {
    value = "Bar";
    return value;

//The Calling Code:
var value = "Foo";
value = doSomething(value); //Reassignment
console.log(value); //Bar

When I would need to write a function that returns multiple values, I would not use parameters passed by reference either. So I would avoid code like this:

//The Function
function doSomething(ref value) {
    value = "Bar";

    //Do other work
    var otherValue = "Something else";

    return otherValue;

//The Calling Code
var value = "Foo";
var otherValue = doSomething(value);
console.log(value); //Bar
console.log(otherValue); //Something else

Instead, I would actually prefer to return both new values inside an object, like this:

//The Function
function doSomething(value) {
    value = "Bar";

    //Do more work
    var otherValue = "Something else";

    return {
        value: value,
        otherValue: otherValue

//The Calling Code:
var value = "Foo";
var result = doSomething(value);
value = result.value; //Reassignment
console.log(value); //Bar

These code examples are quite simplified, but it roughly demonstrates how I personally would handle such stuff. It helps me to keep various responsibilities in the correct place.

Happy coding. :)

I know exactly what you mean. Same thing in Swift will be no problem. Bottom line is use let not var.

The fact that primitives are passed by value but the fact that the value of var i at the point of iteration is not copied into the anonymous function is quite surprising to say the least.

for (let i = 0; i < boxArray.length; i++) {
  boxArray[i].onclick = function() { console.log(i) }; // correctly prints the index

Javascript can modify array items inside a function (it is passed as a reference to the object/array).

function makeAllPretty(items) {
   for (var x = 0; x < myArray.length; x++){
      //do stuff to the array
      items[x] = makePretty(items[x]);

myArray = new Array(var1, var2, var3);

Here's another example:

function inc(items) {
  for (let i=0; i < items.length; i++) {

let values = [1,2,3];
// prints [2,3,4]

JS not being strong type, it allows you to resolve problems in many different ways, as seem in this tread.

However, for maintainability point of view, I would have to agree with Bart Hofland. Function should get args to do something with and return the result. Making them easily reusable.

If you feel that variables need to be passed by reference you may be better served Building them into objects IMHO.

Putting aside the pass-by-reference discussion, those still looking for a solution to the stated question could use:

const myArray = new Array(var1, var2, var3);
myArray.forEach(var => var = makePretty(var));

I like to solve the lack of by reference in Javascript like this example shows.

The essence of this is that you don't try to create a by reference, you instead use the return functionality, and make it able to return multiple values. So no need to insert your values in arrays or objects.

var x = "First";
var y = "Second";
var z = "Third";

log('Before call:',z,y,z);
with (myFunc(x, y, z)) {x = a; y = b; z = c;} // <-- way to call it
log('After call :',z,y,z);

function myFunc(a, b, c) {
  a = "Changed first parameter";
  b = "Changed second parameter";
  c = "Changed third parameter";
  return {a:a, b:b, c:c}; // <-- return multiple values

function log(txt,p1,p2,p3) {
  document.getElementById('msg').innerHTML += txt + '<br>' + p1 + '<br>' + p2 + '<br>' + p3 + '<br><br>'
<div id='msg'></div>

if you want to pass variables by reference better way to do that by passing your arguments in object and then start change value by using window

window["varName"] = value;

example :

// variables with first values
var x = 1 , b = 0  , f = 15;

                    //passing variables in object   //pass new values in array
function asByReference (argumentHasVars = {} ,      newValues = []){
    let VarsNames = [];
    // getting variables names one by one
    for(let name in argumentHasVars) VarsNames.push(name);
    // accessing variables by using window one by one                   // set new value
    for(let i = 0 ; i < VarsNames.length ; i += 1) window[VarsNames[i]] = newValues[i];

console.log(x , b , f); // output with first values

asByReference( {x , b , f} , [5 , 5 , 5] ); // passing as by ref 

console.log(x , b , f); // output after changing values