JavaScript equivalent to printf/String.Format


I'm looking for a good JavaScript equivalent of the C/PHP printf() or for C#/Java programmers, String.Format() (IFormatProvider for .NET).

My basic requirement is a thousand separator format for numbers for now, but something that handles lots of combinations (including dates) would be good.

I realize Microsoft's Ajax library provides a version of String.Format(), but we don't want the entire overhead of that framework.

From ES6 on you could use template strings:

let soMany = 10;
console.log(`This is ${soMany} times easier!`);
// "This is 10 times easier!

See Kim's answer below for details.


Otherwise:

Try sprintf() for JavaScript.


If you really want to do a simple format method on your own, don’t do the replacements successively but do them simultaneously.

Because most of the other proposals that are mentioned fail when a replace string of previous replacement does also contain a format sequence like this:

"{0}{1}".format("{1}", "{0}")

Normally you would expect the output to be {1}{0} but the actual output is {1}{1}. So do a simultaneously replacement instead like in fearphage’s suggestion.


Building on the previously suggested solutions:

// First, checks if it isn't implemented yet.
if (!String.prototype.format) {
  String.prototype.format = function() {
    var args = arguments;
    return this.replace(/{(\d+)}/g, function(match, number) { 
      return typeof args[number] != 'undefined'
        ? args[number]
        : match
      ;
    });
  };
}

"{0} is dead, but {1} is alive! {0} {2}".format("ASP", "ASP.NET")

outputs

ASP is dead, but ASP.NET is alive! ASP {2}


If you prefer not to modify String's prototype:

if (!String.format) {
  String.format = function(format) {
    var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1);
    return format.replace(/{(\d+)}/g, function(match, number) { 
      return typeof args[number] != 'undefined'
        ? args[number] 
        : match
      ;
    });
  };
}

Gives you the much more familiar:

String.format('{0} is dead, but {1} is alive! {0} {2}', 'ASP', 'ASP.NET');

with the same result:

ASP is dead, but ASP.NET is alive! ASP {2}


It's funny because Stack Overflow actually has their own formatting function for the String prototype called formatUnicorn. Try it! Go into the console and type something like:

"Hello, {name}, are you feeling {adjective}?".formatUnicorn({name:"Gabriel", adjective: "OK"});

Firebug

You get this output:

Hello, Gabriel, are you feeling OK?

You can use objects, arrays, and strings as arguments! I got its code and reworked it to produce a new version of String.prototype.format:

String.prototype.formatUnicorn = String.prototype.formatUnicorn ||
function () {
    "use strict";
    var str = this.toString();
    if (arguments.length) {
        var t = typeof arguments[0];
        var key;
        var args = ("string" === t || "number" === t) ?
            Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments)
            : arguments[0];

        for (key in args) {
            str = str.replace(new RegExp("\\{" + key + "\\}", "gi"), args[key]);
        }
    }

    return str;
};

Note the clever Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments) call -- that means if you throw in arguments that are strings or numbers, not a single JSON-style object, you get C#'s String.Format behavior almost exactly.

"a{0}bcd{1}ef".formatUnicorn("foo", "bar"); // yields "aFOObcdBARef"

That's because Array's slice will force whatever's in arguments into an Array, whether it was originally or not, and the key will be the index (0, 1, 2...) of each array element coerced into a string (eg, "0", so "\\{0\\}" for your first regexp pattern).

Neat.


Number Formatting in JavaScript

I got to this question page hoping to find how to format numbers in JavaScript, without introducing yet another library. Here's what I've found:

Rounding floating-point numbers

The equivalent of sprintf("%.2f", num) in JavaScript seems to be num.toFixed(2), which formats num to 2 decimal places, with rounding (but see @ars265's comment about Math.round below).

(12.345).toFixed(2); // returns "12.35" (rounding!)
(12.3).toFixed(2); // returns "12.30" (zero padding)

Exponential form

The equivalent of sprintf("%.2e", num) is num.toExponential(2).

(33333).toExponential(2); // "3.33e+4"

Hexadecimal and other bases

To print numbers in base B, try num.toString(B). JavaScript supports automatic conversion to and from bases 2 through 36 (in addition, some browsers have limited support for base64 encoding).

(3735928559).toString(16); // to base 16: "deadbeef"
parseInt("deadbeef", 16); // from base 16: 3735928559

Reference Pages

Quick tutorial on JS number formatting

Mozilla reference page for toFixed() (with links to toPrecision(), toExponential(), toLocaleString(), ...)


From ES6 on you could use template strings:

let soMany = 10;
console.log(`This is ${soMany} times easier!`);
// "This is 10 times easier!

Be aware that template strings are surrounded by backticks ` instead of (single) quotes.

For further information:

https://developers.google.com/web/updates/2015/01/ES6-Template-Strings

https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/template_strings

Note: Check the mozilla-site to find a list of supported browsers.


jsxt, Zippo

This option fits better.

String.prototype.format = function() {
    var formatted = this;
    for (var i = 0; i < arguments.length; i++) {
        var regexp = new RegExp('\\{'+i+'\\}', 'gi');
        formatted = formatted.replace(regexp, arguments[i]);
    }
    return formatted;
};

With this option I can replace strings like these:

'The {0} is dead. Don\'t code {0}. Code {1} that is open source!'.format('ASP', 'PHP');

With your code the second {0} wouldn't be replaced. ;)


I use this simple function:

String.prototype.format = function() {
    var formatted = this;
    for( var arg in arguments ) {
        formatted = formatted.replace("{" + arg + "}", arguments[arg]);
    }
    return formatted;
};

That's very similar to string.format:

"{0} is dead, but {1} is alive!".format("ASP", "ASP.NET")

For Node.js users there is util.format which has printf-like functionality:

util.format("%s world", "Hello")

I'm surprised no one used reduce, this is a native concise and powerful JavaScript function.

ES6 (EcmaScript2015)

String.prototype.format = function() {
  return [...arguments].reduce((p,c) => p.replace(/%s/,c), this);
};

console.log('Is that a %s or a %s?... No, it\'s %s!'.format('plane', 'bird', 'SOman'));

< ES6

function interpolate(theString, argumentArray) {
    var regex = /%s/;
    var _r=function(p,c){return p.replace(regex,c);}
    return argumentArray.reduce(_r, theString);
}

interpolate("%s, %s and %s", ["Me", "myself", "I"]); // "Me, myself and I"

How it works:

reduce applies a function against an accumulator and each element in the array (from left to right) to reduce it to a single value.

var _r= function(p,c){return p.replace(/%s/,c)};

console.log(
  ["a", "b", "c"].reduce(_r, "[%s], [%s] and [%s]") + '\n',
  [1, 2, 3].reduce(_r, "%s+%s=%s") + '\n',
  ["cool", 1337, "stuff"].reduce(_r, "%s %s %s")
);


Here's a minimal implementation of sprintf in JavaScript: it only does "%s" and "%d", but I have left space for it to be extended. It is useless to the OP, but other people who stumble across this thread coming from Google might benefit from it.

function sprintf() {
    var args = arguments,
    string = args[0],
    i = 1;
    return string.replace(/%((%)|s|d)/g, function (m) {
        // m is the matched format, e.g. %s, %d
        var val = null;
        if (m[2]) {
            val = m[2];
        } else {
            val = args[i];
            // A switch statement so that the formatter can be extended. Default is %s
            switch (m) {
                case '%d':
                    val = parseFloat(val);
                    if (isNaN(val)) {
                        val = 0;
                    }
                    break;
            }
            i++;
        }
        return val;
    });
}

Example:

alert(sprintf('Latitude: %s, Longitude: %s, Count: %d', 41.847, -87.661, 'two'));
// Expected output: Latitude: 41.847, Longitude: -87.661, Count: 0

In contrast with similar solutions in previous replies, this one does all substitutions in one go, so it will not replace parts of previously replaced values.


JavaScript programmers can use String.prototype.sprintf at https://github.com/ildar-shaimordanov/jsxt/blob/master/js/String.js. Below is example:

var d = new Date();
var dateStr = '%02d:%02d:%02d'.sprintf(
    d.getHours(), 
    d.getMinutes(), 
    d.getSeconds());

Adding to zippoxer's answer, I use this function:

String.prototype.format = function () {
    var a = this, b;
    for (b in arguments) {
        a = a.replace(/%[a-z]/, arguments[b]);
    }
    return a; // Make chainable
};

var s = 'Hello %s The magic number is %d.';
s.format('world!', 12); // Hello World! The magic number is 12.

I also have a non-prototype version which I use more often for its Java-like syntax:

function format() {
    var a, b, c;
    a = arguments[0];
    b = [];
    for(c = 1; c < arguments.length; c++){
        b.push(arguments[c]);
    }
    for (c in b) {
        a = a.replace(/%[a-z]/, b[c]);
    }
    return a;
}
format('%d ducks, 55 %s', 12, 'cats'); // 12 ducks, 55 cats

ES 2015 update

All the cool new stuff in ES 2015 makes this a lot easier:

function format(fmt, ...args){
    return fmt
        .split("%%")
        .reduce((aggregate, chunk, i) =>
            aggregate + chunk + (args[i] || ""), "");
}

format("Hello %%! I ate %% apples today.", "World", 44);
// "Hello World, I ate 44 apples today."

I figured that since this, like the older ones, doesn't actually parse the letters, it might as well just use a single token %%. This has the benefit of being obvious and not making it difficult to use a single %. However, if you need %% for some reason, you would need to replace it with itself:

format("I love percentage signs! %%", "%%");
// "I love percentage signs! %%"

+1 Zippo with the exception that the function body needs to be as below or otherwise it appends the current string on every iteration:

String.prototype.format = function() {
    var formatted = this;
    for (var arg in arguments) {
        formatted = formatted.replace("{" + arg + "}", arguments[arg]);
    }
    return formatted;
};

I want to share my solution for the 'problem'. I haven't re-invented the wheel but tries to find a solution based on what JavaScript already does. The advantage is, that you get all implicit conversions for free. Setting the prototype property $ of String gives a very nice and compact syntax (see examples below). It is maybe not the most efficient way, but in most cases dealing with output it does not have to be super optimized.

String.form = function(str, arr) {
    var i = -1;
    function callback(exp, p0, p1, p2, p3, p4) {
        if (exp=='%%') return '%';
        if (arr[++i]===undefined) return undefined;
        exp  = p2 ? parseInt(p2.substr(1)) : undefined;
        var base = p3 ? parseInt(p3.substr(1)) : undefined;
        var val;
        switch (p4) {
            case 's': val = arr[i]; break;
            case 'c': val = arr[i][0]; break;
            case 'f': val = parseFloat(arr[i]).toFixed(exp); break;
            case 'p': val = parseFloat(arr[i]).toPrecision(exp); break;
            case 'e': val = parseFloat(arr[i]).toExponential(exp); break;
            case 'x': val = parseInt(arr[i]).toString(base?base:16); break;
            case 'd': val = parseFloat(parseInt(arr[i], base?base:10).toPrecision(exp)).toFixed(0); break;
        }
        val = typeof(val)=='object' ? JSON.stringify(val) : val.toString(base);
        var sz = parseInt(p1); /* padding size */
        var ch = p1 && p1[0]=='0' ? '0' : ' '; /* isnull? */
        while (val.length<sz) val = p0 !== undefined ? val+ch : ch+val; /* isminus? */
       return val;
    }
    var regex = /%(-)?(0?[0-9]+)?([.][0-9]+)?([#][0-9]+)?([scfpexd%])/g;
    return str.replace(regex, callback);
}

String.prototype.$ = function() {
    return String.form(this, Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments));
}

Here are a few examples:

String.format("%s %s", [ "This is a string", 11 ])
console.log("%s %s".$("This is a string", 11))
var arr = [ "12.3", 13.6 ]; console.log("Array: %s".$(arr));
var obj = { test:"test", id:12 }; console.log("Object: %s".$(obj));
console.log("%c", "Test");
console.log("%5d".$(12)); // '   12'
console.log("%05d".$(12)); // '00012'
console.log("%-5d".$(12)); // '12   '
console.log("%5.2d".$(123)); // '  120'
console.log("%5.2f".$(1.1)); // ' 1.10'
console.log("%10.2e".$(1.1)); // '   1.10e+0'
console.log("%5.3p".$(1.12345)); // ' 1.12'
console.log("%5x".$(45054)); // ' affe'
console.log("%20#2x".$("45054")); // '    1010111111111110'
console.log("%6#2d".$("111")); // '     7'
console.log("%6#16d".$("affe")); // ' 45054'

I'll add my own discoveries which I've found since I asked:

Sadly it seems sprintf doesn't handle thousand separator formatting like .NET's string format.


I use a small library called String.format for JavaScript which supports most of the format string capabilities (including format of numbers and dates), and uses the .NET syntax. The script itself is smaller than 4 kB, so it doesn't create much of overhead.


Very elegant:

String.prototype.format = function (){
    var args = arguments;
    return this.replace(/\{\{|\}\}|\{(\d+)\}/g, function (curlyBrack, index) {
        return ((curlyBrack == "{{") ? "{" : ((curlyBrack == "}}") ? "}" : args[index]));
    });
};

// Usage:
"{0}{1}".format("{1}", "{0}")

Credit goes to (broken link) https://gist.github.com/0i0/1519811


If you are looking to handle the thousands separator, you should really use toLocaleString() from the JavaScript Number class since it will format the string for the user's region.

The JavaScript Date class can format localized dates and times.


I use this one:

String.prototype.format = function() {
    var newStr = this, i = 0;
    while (/%s/.test(newStr))
        newStr = newStr.replace("%s", arguments[i++])

    return newStr;
}

Then I call it:

"<h1>%s</h1><p>%s</p>".format("Header", "Just a test!");

I have a solution very close to Peter's, but it deals with number and object case.

if (!String.prototype.format) {
  String.prototype.format = function() {
    var args;
    args = arguments;
    if (args.length === 1 && args[0] !== null && typeof args[0] === 'object') {
      args = args[0];
    }
    return this.replace(/{([^}]*)}/g, function(match, key) {
      return (typeof args[key] !== "undefined" ? args[key] : match);
    });
  };
}

Maybe it could be even better to deal with the all deeps cases, but for my needs this is just fine.

"This is an example from {name}".format({name:"Blaine"});
"This is an example from {0}".format("Blaine");

PS: This function is very cool if you are using translations in templates frameworks like AngularJS:

<h1> {{('hello-message'|translate).format(user)}} <h1>
<h1> {{('hello-by-name'|translate).format( user ? user.name : 'You' )}} <h1>

Where the en.json is something like

{
    "hello-message": "Hello {name}, welcome.",
    "hello-by-name": "Hello {0}, welcome."
}

The PHPJS project has written JavaScript implementations for many of PHP's functions. Since PHP's sprintf() function is basically the same as C's printf(), their JavaScript implementation of it should satisfy your needs.


One very slightly different version, the one I prefer (this one uses {xxx} tokens rather than {0} numbered arguments, this is much more self-documenting and suits localization much better):

String.prototype.format = function(tokens) {
  var formatted = this;
  for (var token in tokens)
    if (tokens.hasOwnProperty(token))
      formatted = formatted.replace(RegExp("{" + token + "}", "g"), tokens[token]);
  return formatted;
};

A variation would be:

  var formatted = l(this);

that calls an l() localization function first.


There is "sprintf" for JavaScript which you can find at http://www.webtoolkit.info/javascript-sprintf.html.


For those who like Node.JS and its util.format feature, I've just extracted it out into its vanilla JavaScript form (with only functions that util.format uses):

exports = {};

function isString(arg) {
    return typeof arg === 'string';
}
function isNull(arg) {
    return arg === null;
}
function isObject(arg) {
    return typeof arg === 'object' && arg !== null;
}
function isBoolean(arg) {
    return typeof arg === 'boolean';
}
function isUndefined(arg) {
    return arg === void 0;
}
function stylizeNoColor(str, styleType) {
    return str;
}
function stylizeWithColor(str, styleType) {
    var style = inspect.styles[styleType];

    if (style) {
        return '\u001b[' + inspect.colors[style][0] + 'm' + str +
            '\u001b[' + inspect.colors[style][3] + 'm';
    } else {
        return str;
    }
}
function isFunction(arg) {
    return typeof arg === 'function';
}
function isNumber(arg) {
    return typeof arg === 'number';
}
function isSymbol(arg) {
    return typeof arg === 'symbol';
}
function formatPrimitive(ctx, value) {
    if (isUndefined(value))
        return ctx.stylize('undefined', 'undefined');
    if (isString(value)) {
        var simple = '\'' + JSON.stringify(value).replace(/^"|"$/g, '')
                .replace(/'/g, "\\'")
                .replace(/\\"/g, '"') + '\'';
        return ctx.stylize(simple, 'string');
    }
    if (isNumber(value)) {
        // Format -0 as '-0'. Strict equality won't distinguish 0 from -0,
        // so instead we use the fact that 1 / -0 < 0 whereas 1 / 0 > 0 .
        if (value === 0 && 1 / value < 0)
            return ctx.stylize('-0', 'number');
        return ctx.stylize('' + value, 'number');
    }
    if (isBoolean(value))
        return ctx.stylize('' + value, 'boolean');
    // For some reason typeof null is "object", so special case here.
    if (isNull(value))
        return ctx.stylize('null', 'null');
    // es6 symbol primitive
    if (isSymbol(value))
        return ctx.stylize(value.toString(), 'symbol');
}
function arrayToHash(array) {
    var hash = {};

    array.forEach(function (val, idx) {
        hash[val] = true;
    });

    return hash;
}
function objectToString(o) {
    return Object.prototype.toString.call(o);
}
function isDate(d) {
    return isObject(d) && objectToString(d) === '[object Date]';
}
function isError(e) {
    return isObject(e) &&
        (objectToString(e) === '[object Error]' || e instanceof Error);
}
function isRegExp(re) {
    return isObject(re) && objectToString(re) === '[object RegExp]';
}
function formatError(value) {
    return '[' + Error.prototype.toString.call(value) + ']';
}
function formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, value) {
    var stylize = ctx.stylize;
    ctx.stylize = stylizeNoColor;
    var str = formatPrimitive(ctx, value);
    ctx.stylize = stylize;
    return str;
}
function isArray(ar) {
    return Array.isArray(ar);
}
function hasOwnProperty(obj, prop) {
    return Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(obj, prop);
}
function formatProperty(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys, key, array) {
    var name, str, desc;
    desc = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(value, key) || {value: value[key]};
    if (desc.get) {
        if (desc.set) {
            str = ctx.stylize('[Getter/Setter]', 'special');
        } else {
            str = ctx.stylize('[Getter]', 'special');
        }
    } else {
        if (desc.set) {
            str = ctx.stylize('[Setter]', 'special');
        }
    }
    if (!hasOwnProperty(visibleKeys, key)) {
        name = '[' + key + ']';
    }
    if (!str) {
        if (ctx.seen.indexOf(desc.value) < 0) {
            if (isNull(recurseTimes)) {
                str = formatValue(ctx, desc.value, null);
            } else {
                str = formatValue(ctx, desc.value, recurseTimes - 1);
            }
            if (str.indexOf('\n') > -1) {
                if (array) {
                    str = str.split('\n').map(function (line) {
                        return '  ' + line;
                    }).join('\n').substr(2);
                } else {
                    str = '\n' + str.split('\n').map(function (line) {
                        return '   ' + line;
                    }).join('\n');
                }
            }
        } else {
            str = ctx.stylize('[Circular]', 'special');
        }
    }
    if (isUndefined(name)) {
        if (array && key.match(/^\d+$/)) {
            return str;
        }
        name = JSON.stringify('' + key);
        if (name.match(/^"([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)"$/)) {
            name = name.substr(1, name.length - 2);
            name = ctx.stylize(name, 'name');
        } else {
            name = name.replace(/'/g, "\\'")
                .replace(/\\"/g, '"')
                .replace(/(^"|"$)/g, "'")
                .replace(/\\\\/g, '\\');
            name = ctx.stylize(name, 'string');
        }
    }

    return name + ': ' + str;
}
function formatArray(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys, keys) {
    var output = [];
    for (var i = 0, l = value.length; i < l; ++i) {
        if (hasOwnProperty(value, String(i))) {
            output.push(formatProperty(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys,
                String(i), true));
        } else {
            output.push('');
        }
    }
    keys.forEach(function (key) {
        if (!key.match(/^\d+$/)) {
            output.push(formatProperty(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys,
                key, true));
        }
    });
    return output;
}
function reduceToSingleString(output, base, braces) {
    var length = output.reduce(function (prev, cur) {
        return prev + cur.replace(/\u001b\[\d\d?m/g, '').length + 1;
    }, 0);

    if (length > 60) {
        return braces[0] +
            (base === '' ? '' : base + '\n ') +
            ' ' +
            output.join(',\n  ') +
            ' ' +
            braces[1];
    }

    return braces[0] + base + ' ' + output.join(', ') + ' ' + braces[1];
}
function formatValue(ctx, value, recurseTimes) {
    // Provide a hook for user-specified inspect functions.
    // Check that value is an object with an inspect function on it
    if (ctx.customInspect &&
        value &&
        isFunction(value.inspect) &&
            // Filter out the util module, it's inspect function is special
        value.inspect !== exports.inspect &&
            // Also filter out any prototype objects using the circular check.
        !(value.constructor && value.constructor.prototype === value)) {
        var ret = value.inspect(recurseTimes, ctx);
        if (!isString(ret)) {
            ret = formatValue(ctx, ret, recurseTimes);
        }
        return ret;
    }

    // Primitive types cannot have properties
    var primitive = formatPrimitive(ctx, value);
    if (primitive) {
        return primitive;
    }

    // Look up the keys of the object.
    var keys = Object.keys(value);
    var visibleKeys = arrayToHash(keys);

    if (ctx.showHidden) {
        keys = Object.getOwnPropertyNames(value);
    }

    // This could be a boxed primitive (new String(), etc.), check valueOf()
    // NOTE: Avoid calling `valueOf` on `Date` instance because it will return
    // a number which, when object has some additional user-stored `keys`,
    // will be printed out.
    var formatted;
    var raw = value;
    try {
        // the .valueOf() call can fail for a multitude of reasons
        if (!isDate(value))
            raw = value.valueOf();
    } catch (e) {
        // ignore...
    }

    if (isString(raw)) {
        // for boxed Strings, we have to remove the 0-n indexed entries,
        // since they just noisey up the output and are redundant
        keys = keys.filter(function (key) {
            return !(key >= 0 && key < raw.length);
        });
    }

    // Some type of object without properties can be shortcutted.
    if (keys.length === 0) {
        if (isFunction(value)) {
            var name = value.name ? ': ' + value.name : '';
            return ctx.stylize('[Function' + name + ']', 'special');
        }
        if (isRegExp(value)) {
            return ctx.stylize(RegExp.prototype.toString.call(value), 'regexp');
        }
        if (isDate(value)) {
            return ctx.stylize(Date.prototype.toString.call(value), 'date');
        }
        if (isError(value)) {
            return formatError(value);
        }
        // now check the `raw` value to handle boxed primitives
        if (isString(raw)) {
            formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
            return ctx.stylize('[String: ' + formatted + ']', 'string');
        }
        if (isNumber(raw)) {
            formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
            return ctx.stylize('[Number: ' + formatted + ']', 'number');
        }
        if (isBoolean(raw)) {
            formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
            return ctx.stylize('[Boolean: ' + formatted + ']', 'boolean');
        }
    }

    var base = '', array = false, braces = ['{', '}'];

    // Make Array say that they are Array
    if (isArray(value)) {
        array = true;
        braces = ['[', ']'];
    }

    // Make functions say that they are functions
    if (isFunction(value)) {
        var n = value.name ? ': ' + value.name : '';
        base = ' [Function' + n + ']';
    }

    // Make RegExps say that they are RegExps
    if (isRegExp(value)) {
        base = ' ' + RegExp.prototype.toString.call(value);
    }

    // Make dates with properties first say the date
    if (isDate(value)) {
        base = ' ' + Date.prototype.toUTCString.call(value);
    }

    // Make error with message first say the error
    if (isError(value)) {
        base = ' ' + formatError(value);
    }

    // Make boxed primitive Strings look like such
    if (isString(raw)) {
        formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
        base = ' ' + '[String: ' + formatted + ']';
    }

    // Make boxed primitive Numbers look like such
    if (isNumber(raw)) {
        formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
        base = ' ' + '[Number: ' + formatted + ']';
    }

    // Make boxed primitive Booleans look like such
    if (isBoolean(raw)) {
        formatted = formatPrimitiveNoColor(ctx, raw);
        base = ' ' + '[Boolean: ' + formatted + ']';
    }

    if (keys.length === 0 && (!array || value.length === 0)) {
        return braces[0] + base + braces[1];
    }

    if (recurseTimes < 0) {
        if (isRegExp(value)) {
            return ctx.stylize(RegExp.prototype.toString.call(value), 'regexp');
        } else {
            return ctx.stylize('[Object]', 'special');
        }
    }

    ctx.seen.push(value);

    var output;
    if (array) {
        output = formatArray(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys, keys);
    } else {
        output = keys.map(function (key) {
            return formatProperty(ctx, value, recurseTimes, visibleKeys, key, array);
        });
    }

    ctx.seen.pop();

    return reduceToSingleString(output, base, braces);
}
function inspect(obj, opts) {
    // default options
    var ctx = {
        seen: [],
        stylize: stylizeNoColor
    };
    // legacy...
    if (arguments.length >= 3) ctx.depth = arguments[2];
    if (arguments.length >= 4) ctx.colors = arguments[3];
    if (isBoolean(opts)) {
        // legacy...
        ctx.showHidden = opts;
    } else if (opts) {
        // got an "options" object
        exports._extend(ctx, opts);
    }
    // set default options
    if (isUndefined(ctx.showHidden)) ctx.showHidden = false;
    if (isUndefined(ctx.depth)) ctx.depth = 2;
    if (isUndefined(ctx.colors)) ctx.colors = false;
    if (isUndefined(ctx.customInspect)) ctx.customInspect = true;
    if (ctx.colors) ctx.stylize = stylizeWithColor;
    return formatValue(ctx, obj, ctx.depth);
}
exports.inspect = inspect;


// http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANSI_escape_code#graphics
inspect.colors = {
    'bold': [1, 22],
    'italic': [3, 23],
    'underline': [4, 24],
    'inverse': [7, 27],
    'white': [37, 39],
    'grey': [90, 39],
    'black': [30, 39],
    'blue': [34, 39],
    'cyan': [36, 39],
    'green': [32, 39],
    'magenta': [35, 39],
    'red': [31, 39],
    'yellow': [33, 39]
};

// Don't use 'blue' not visible on cmd.exe
inspect.styles = {
    'special': 'cyan',
    'number': 'yellow',
    'boolean': 'yellow',
    'undefined': 'grey',
    'null': 'bold',
    'string': 'green',
    'symbol': 'green',
    'date': 'magenta',
    // "name": intentionally not styling
    'regexp': 'red'
};


var formatRegExp = /%[sdj%]/g;
exports.format = function (f) {
    if (!isString(f)) {
        var objects = [];
        for (var j = 0; j < arguments.length; j++) {
            objects.push(inspect(arguments[j]));
        }
        return objects.join(' ');
    }

    var i = 1;
    var args = arguments;
    var len = args.length;
    var str = String(f).replace(formatRegExp, function (x) {
        if (x === '%%') return '%';
        if (i >= len) return x;
        switch (x) {
            case '%s':
                return String(args[i++]);
            case '%d':
                return Number(args[i++]);
            case '%j':
                try {
                    return JSON.stringify(args[i++]);
                } catch (_) {
                    return '[Circular]';
                }
            default:
                return x;
        }
    });
    for (var x = args[i]; i < len; x = args[++i]) {
        if (isNull(x) || !isObject(x)) {
            str += ' ' + x;
        } else {
            str += ' ' + inspect(x);
        }
    }
    return str;
};

Harvested from: https://github.com/joyent/node/blob/master/lib/util.js


For basic formatting:

var template = jQuery.validator.format("{0} is not a valid value");
var result = template("abc");

I have a slightly longer formatter for JavaScript here...

You can do formatting several ways:

  • String.format(input, args0, arg1, ...)
  • String.format(input, obj)
  • "literal".format(arg0, arg1, ...)
  • "literal".format(obj)

Also, if you have say a ObjectBase.prototype.format (such as with DateJS) it will use that.

Examples...

var input = "numbered args ({0}-{1}-{2}-{3})";
console.log(String.format(input, "first", 2, new Date()));
//Outputs "numbered args (first-2-Thu May 31 2012...Time)-{3})"

console.log(input.format("first", 2, new Date()));
//Outputs "numbered args(first-2-Thu May 31 2012...Time)-{3})"

console.log(input.format(
    "object properties ({first}-{second}-{third:yyyy-MM-dd}-{fourth})"
    ,{
        'first':'first'
        ,'second':2
        ,'third':new Date() //assumes Date.prototype.format method
    }
));
//Outputs "object properties (first-2-2012-05-31-{3})"

I've also aliased with .asFormat and have some detection in place in case there's already a string.format (such as with MS Ajax Toolkit (I hate that library).


Just in case someone needs a function to prevent polluting global scope, here is the function that does the same:

  function _format (str, arr) {
    return str.replace(/{(\d+)}/g, function (match, number) {
      return typeof arr[number] != 'undefined' ? arr[number] : match;
    });
  };

We can use a simple lightweight String.Format string operation library for Typescript.

String.Format():

var id = image.GetId()
String.Format("image_{0}.jpg", id)
output: "image_2db5da20-1c5d-4f1a-8fd4-b41e34c8c5b5.jpg";

String Format for specifiers:

var value = String.Format("{0:L}", "APPLE"); //output "apple"

value = String.Format("{0:U}", "apple"); // output "APPLE"

value = String.Format("{0:d}", "2017-01-23 00:00"); //output "23.01.2017"


value = String.Format("{0:s}", "21.03.2017 22:15:01") //output "2017-03-21T22:15:01"

value = String.Format("{0:n}", 1000000);
//output "1.000.000"

value = String.Format("{0:00}", 1);
//output "01"

String Format for Objects including specifiers:

var fruit = new Fruit();
fruit.type = "apple";
fruit.color = "RED";
fruit.shippingDate = new Date(2018, 1, 1);
fruit.amount = 10000;

String.Format("the {type:U} is {color:L} shipped on {shippingDate:s} with an amount of {amount:n}", fruit);
// output: the APPLE is red shipped on 2018-01-01 with an amount of 10.000

I did not see the String.format variant:

String.format = function (string) {
    var args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments, 1, arguments.length);
    return string.replace(/{(\d+)}/g, function (match, number) {
        return typeof args[number] != "undefined" ? args[number] : match;
    });
};

For use with jQuery.ajax() success functions. Pass only a single argument and string replace with the properties of that object as {propertyName}:

String.prototype.format = function () {
    var formatted = this;
    for (var prop in arguments[0]) {
        var regexp = new RegExp('\\{' + prop + '\\}', 'gi');
        formatted = formatted.replace(regexp, arguments[0][prop]);
    }
    return formatted;
};

Example:

var userInfo = ("Email: {Email} - Phone: {Phone}").format({ Email: "[email protected]", Phone: "123-123-1234" });