How can I pad a value with leading zeros?


What is the recommended way to zerofill a value in JavaScript? I imagine I could build a custom function to pad zeros on to a typecasted value, but I'm wondering if there is a more direct way to do this?

Note: By "zerofilled" I mean it in the database sense of the word (where a 6-digit zerofilled representation of the number 5 would be "000005").

Note to readers!

As commenters have pointed out, this solution is "clever", and as clever solutions often are, it's memory intensive and relatively slow. If performance is a concern for you, don't use this solution!

Potentially outdated: ECMAScript 2017 includes String.prototype.padStart and Number.prototype.toLocaleString is there since ECMAScript 3.1. Example:

var n=-0.1;
n.toLocaleString('en', {minimumIntegerDigits:4,minimumFractionDigits:2,useGrouping:false})

...will output "-0000.10".

// or 
const padded = (.1+"").padStart(6,"0");
`-${padded}`

...will output "-0000.1".

A simple function is all you need

function zeroFill( number, width )
{
  width -= number.toString().length;
  if ( width > 0 )
  {
    return new Array( width + (/\./.test( number ) ? 2 : 1) ).join( '0' ) + number;
  }
  return number + ""; // always return a string
}

you could bake this into a library if you want to conserve namespace or whatever. Like with jQuery's extend.


Simple way. You could add string multiplication for the pad and turn it into a function.

var pad = "000000";
var n = '5';
var result = (pad+n).slice(-pad.length);

As a function,

function paddy(num, padlen, padchar) {
    var pad_char = typeof padchar !== 'undefined' ? padchar : '0';
    var pad = new Array(1 + padlen).join(pad_char);
    return (pad + num).slice(-pad.length);
}
var fu = paddy(14, 5); // 00014
var bar = paddy(2, 4, '#'); // ###2

I can't believe all the complex answers on here... Just use this:

var zerofilled = ('0000'+n).slice(-4);

I actually had to come up with something like this recently. I figured there had to be a way to do it without using loops.

This is what I came up with.

function zeroPad(num, numZeros) {
    var n = Math.abs(num);
    var zeros = Math.max(0, numZeros - Math.floor(n).toString().length );
    var zeroString = Math.pow(10,zeros).toString().substr(1);
    if( num < 0 ) {
        zeroString = '-' + zeroString;
    }

    return zeroString+n;
}

Then just use it providing a number to zero pad:

> zeroPad(50,4);
"0050"

If the number is larger than the padding, the number will expand beyond the padding:

> zeroPad(51234, 3);
"51234"

Decimals are fine too!

> zeroPad(51.1234, 4);
"0051.1234"

If you don't mind polluting the global namespace you can add it to Number directly:

Number.prototype.leftZeroPad = function(numZeros) {
    var n = Math.abs(this);
    var zeros = Math.max(0, numZeros - Math.floor(n).toString().length );
    var zeroString = Math.pow(10,zeros).toString().substr(1);
    if( this < 0 ) {
        zeroString = '-' + zeroString;
    }

    return zeroString+n;
}

And if you'd rather have decimals take up space in the padding:

Number.prototype.leftZeroPad = function(numZeros) {
    var n = Math.abs(this);
    var zeros = Math.max(0, numZeros - n.toString().length );
    var zeroString = Math.pow(10,zeros).toString().substr(1);
    if( this < 0 ) {
        zeroString = '-' + zeroString;
    }

    return zeroString+n;
}

Cheers!



XDR came up with a logarithmic variation that seems to perform better.

WARNING: This function fails if num equals zero (e.g. zeropad(0, 2))

function zeroPad (num, numZeros) {
    var an = Math.abs (num);
    var digitCount = 1 + Math.floor (Math.log (an) / Math.LN10);
    if (digitCount >= numZeros) {
        return num;
    }
    var zeroString = Math.pow (10, numZeros - digitCount).toString ().substr (1);
    return num < 0 ? '-' + zeroString + an : zeroString + an;
}

Speaking of performance, tomsmeding compared the top 3 answers (4 with the log variation). Guess which one majorly outperformed the other two? :)


Here's what I used to pad a number up to 7 characters.

("0000000" + number).slice(-7)

This approach will probably suffice for most people.

Edit: If you want to make it more generic you can do this:

("0".repeat(padding) + number).slice(-padding)

Edit 2: Note that since ES2017 you can use String.prototype.padStart:

number.toString().padStart(padding, "0")

In a proposed (stage 3) ES2017 method .padStart() you can simply now do (when implemented/supported):

string.padStart(maxLength, "0"); //max length is the max string length, not max # of fills

Unfortunately, there are a lot of needless complicated suggestions for this problem, typically involving writing your own function to do math or string manipulation or calling a third-party utility. However, there is a standard way of doing this in the base JavaScript library with just one line of code. It might be worth wrapping this one line of code in a function to avoid having to specify parameters that you never want to change like the local name or style.

var amount = 5;

var text = amount.toLocaleString('en-US',
{
    style: 'decimal',
    minimumIntegerDigits: 3,
    useGrouping: false
});

This will produce the value of "005" for text. You can also use the toLocaleString function of Number to pad zeros to the right side of the decimal point.

var amount = 5;

var text = amount.toLocaleString('en-US',
{
    style: 'decimal',
    minimumFractionDigits: 2,
    useGrouping: false
});

This will produce the value of "5.00" for text. Change useGrouping to true to use comma separators for thousands.

Note that using toLocaleString() with locales and options arguments is standardized separately in ECMA-402, not in ECMAScript. As of today, some browsers only implement basic support, i.e. toLocaleString() may ignore any arguments.

Complete Example


If the fill number is known in advance not to exceed a certain value, there's another way to do this with no loops:

var fillZeroes = "00000000000000000000";  // max number of zero fill ever asked for in global

function zeroFill(number, width) {
    // make sure it's a string
    var input = number + "";  
    var prefix = "";
    if (input.charAt(0) === '-') {
        prefix = "-";
        input = input.slice(1);
        --width;
    }
    var fillAmt = Math.max(width - input.length, 0);
    return prefix + fillZeroes.slice(0, fillAmt) + input;
}

Test cases here: http://jsfiddle.net/jfriend00/N87mZ/


The quick and dirty way:

y = (new Array(count + 1 - x.toString().length)).join('0') + x;

For x = 5 and count = 6 you'll have y = "000005"


Here's a quick function I came up with to do the job. If anyone has a simpler approach, feel free to share!

function zerofill(number, length) {
    // Setup
    var result = number.toString();
    var pad = length - result.length;

    while(pad > 0) {
        result = '0' + result;
        pad--;
    }

    return result;
}

Late to the party here, but I often use this construct for doing ad-hoc padding of some value n, known to be a positive, decimal:

(offset + n + '').substr(1);

Where offset is 10^^digits.

E.g. Padding to 5 digits, where n = 123:

(1e5 + 123 + '').substr(1); // => 00123

The hexidecimal version of this is slightly more verbose:

(0x100000 + 0x123).toString(16).substr(1); // => 00123

Note 1: I like @profitehlolz's solution as well, which is the string version of this, using slice()'s nifty negative-index feature.


I really don't know why, but no one did it in the most obvious way. Here it's my implementation.

Function:

/** Pad a number with 0 on the left */
function zeroPad(number, digits) {
    var num = number+"";
    while(num.length < digits){
        num='0'+num;
    }
    return num;
}

Prototype:

Number.prototype.zeroPad=function(digits){
    var num=this+"";
    while(num.length < digits){
        num='0'+num;
    }
    return(num);
};

Very straightforward, I can't see any way how this can be any simpler. For some reason I've seem many times here on SO, people just try to avoid 'for' and 'while' loops at any cost. Using regex will probably cost way more cycles for such a trivial 8 digit padding.


I use this snipet to get a 5 digits representation

(value+100000).toString().slice(-5) // "00123" with value=123

ECMAScript 2017: use padStart or padEnd

'abc'.padStart(10);         // "       abc"
'abc'.padStart(10, "foo");  // "foofoofabc"
'abc'.padStart(6,"123465"); // "123abc"

More info:


The power of Math!

x = integer to pad
y = number of zeroes to pad

function zeroPad(x, y)
{
   y = Math.max(y-1,0);
   var n = (x / Math.pow(10,y)).toFixed(y);
   return n.replace('.','');  
}

I didn't see anyone point out the fact that when you use String.prototype.substr() with a negative number it counts from the right.

A one liner solution to the OP's question, a 6-digit zerofilled representation of the number 5, is:

console.log(("00000000" + 5).substr(-6));

Generalizing we'll get:

function pad(num, len) { return ("00000000" + num).substr(-len) };

console.log(pad(5, 6));
console.log(pad(45, 6));
console.log(pad(345, 6));
console.log(pad(2345, 6));
console.log(pad(12345, 6));


First parameter is any real number, second parameter is a positive integer specifying the minimum number of digits to the left of the decimal point and third parameter is an optional positive integer specifying the number if digits to the right of the decimal point.

function zPad(n, l, r){
    return(a=String(n).match(/(^-?)(\d*)\.?(\d*)/))?a[1]+(Array(l).join(0)+a[2]).slice(-Math.max(l,a[2].length))+('undefined'!==typeof r?(0<r?'.':'')+(a[3]+Array(r+1).join(0)).slice(0,r):a[3]?'.'+a[3]:''):0
}

so

           zPad(6, 2) === '06'
          zPad(-6, 2) === '-06'
       zPad(600.2, 2) === '600.2'
        zPad(-600, 2) === '-600'
         zPad(6.2, 3) === '006.2'
        zPad(-6.2, 3) === '-006.2'
      zPad(6.2, 3, 0) === '006'
        zPad(6, 2, 3) === '06.000'
    zPad(600.2, 2, 3) === '600.200'
zPad(-600.1499, 2, 3) === '-600.149'

Don't reinvent the wheel, use underscore string:

jsFiddle

var numToPad = '5';

alert(_.str.pad(numToPad, 6, '0')); // yields: '000005'

This is the ES6 solution.

function pad(num, len) {
  return '0'.repeat(len - num.toString().length) + num;
}
alert(pad(1234,6));


In all modern browsers you can use

numberStr.padStart(numberLength, "0");

function zeroFill(num, numLength) {
  var numberStr = num.toString();

  return numberStr.padStart(numLength, "0");
}

var numbers = [0, 1, 12, 123, 1234, 12345];

numbers.forEach(
  function(num) {
    var numString = num.toString();
    
    var paddedNum = zeroFill(numString, 5);

    console.log(paddedNum);
  }
);

Here is the MDN reference https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/String/padStart


After a, long, long time of testing 15 different functions/methods found in this questions answers, I now know which is the best (the most versatile and quickest).

I took 15 functions/methods from the answers to this question and made a script to measure the time taken to execute 100 pads. Each pad would pad the number 9 with 2000 zeros. This may seem excessive, and it is, but it gives you a good idea about the scaling of the functions.

The code I used can be found here: https://gist.github.com/NextToNothing/6325915

Feel free to modify and test the code yourself.

In order to get the most versatile method, you have to use a loop. This is because with very large numbers others are likely to fail, whereas, this will succeed.

So, which loop to use? Well, that would be a while loop. A for loop is still fast, but a while loop is just slightly quicker(a couple of ms) - and cleaner.

Answers like those by Wilco, Aleksandar Toplek or Vitim.us will do the job perfectly.

Personally, I tried a different approach. I tried to use a recursive function to pad the string/number. It worked out better than methods joining an array but, still, didn't work as quick as a for loop.

My function is:

function pad(str, max, padder) {
  padder = typeof padder === "undefined" ? "0" : padder;
  return str.toString().length < max ? pad(padder.toString() + str, max, padder) : str;
}

You can use my function with, or without, setting the padding variable. So like this:

pad(1, 3); // Returns '001'
// - Or -
pad(1, 3, "x"); // Returns 'xx1'

Personally, after my tests, I would use a method with a while loop, like Aleksandar Toplek or Vitim.us. However, I would modify it slightly so that you are able to set the padding string.

So, I would use this code:

function padLeft(str, len, pad) {
    pad = typeof pad === "undefined" ? "0" : pad + "";
    str = str + "";
    while(str.length < len) {
        str = pad + str;
    }
    return str;
}

// Usage
padLeft(1, 3); // Returns '001'
// - Or -
padLeft(1, 3, "x"); // Returns 'xx1'

You could also use it as a prototype function, by using this code:

Number.prototype.padLeft = function(len, pad) {
    pad = typeof pad === "undefined" ? "0" : pad + "";
    var str = this + "";
    while(str.length < len) {
        str = pad + str;
    }
    return str;
}

// Usage
var num = 1;

num.padLeft(3); // Returns '001'
// - Or -
num.padLeft(3, "x"); // Returns 'xx1'

Not that this question needs more answers, but I thought I would add the simple lodash version of this.

_.padLeft(number, 6, '0')


The latest way to do this is much simpler:

var number = 2
number.toLocaleString(undefined, {minimumIntegerDigits:2})

output: "02"


Just an another solution, but I think it's more legible.

function zeroFill(text, size)
{
  while (text.length < size){
  	text = "0" + text;
  }
  
  return text;
}


This one is less native, but may be the fastest...

zeroPad = function (num, count) {
    var pad = (num + '').length - count;
    while(--pad > -1) {
        num = '0' + num;
    }
    return num;
};

My solution

Number.prototype.PadLeft = function (length, digit) {
    var str = '' + this;
    while (str.length < length) {
        str = (digit || '0') + str;
    }
    return str;
};

Usage

var a = 567.25;
a.PadLeft(10); // 0000567.25

var b = 567.25;
b.PadLeft(20, '2'); // 22222222222222567.25

Why not use recursion?

function padZero(s, n) {
    s = s.toString(); // in case someone passes a number
    return s.length >= n ? s : padZero('0' + s, n);
}

Some monkeypatching also works

String.prototype.padLeft = function (n, c) {
  if (isNaN(n))
    return null;
  c = c || "0";
  return (new Array(n).join(c).substring(0, this.length-n)) + this; 
};
var paddedValue = "123".padLeft(6); // returns "000123"
var otherPadded = "TEXT".padLeft(8, " "); // returns "    TEXT"

function pad(toPad, padChar, length){
    return (String(toPad).length < length)
        ? new Array(length - String(toPad).length + 1).join(padChar) + String(toPad)
        : toPad;
}

pad(5, 0, 6) = 000005

pad('10', 0, 2) = 10 // don't pad if not necessary

pad('S', 'O', 2) = SO

...etc.

Cheers


The simplest, most straight-forward solution you will find.

function zerofill(number,length) {
    var output = number.toString();
    while(output.length < length) {
      output = '0' + output;
    }
    return output;
}