How to do fade-in and fade-out with JavaScript and CSS


I want to make an HTML div tag fade in and fade out.

I have some code that fades out, but when I fade in, the opacity of the div stays at 0.1 and doesn't increase.

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">

 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en">
 <head>
    <title>Fade to Black</title>
    <script type="text/javascript">
        //<![CDATA[
        function slidePanel(elementToSlide, slideSource)
        {
            var element = document.getElementById(elementToSlide);

            if(element.up == null || element.up == false) {
                setTimeout("fadeOut(\"" + elementToSlide + "\")", 100);
                element.up = true;
                slideSource.innerHTML = "Bring it down";
            } else {
                setTimeout("fadeIn(\"" + elementToSlide + "\")", 100);
                element.up = false;
                slideSource.innerHTML = "Take it up";
            }
        }

        function fadeIn(elementToFade)
        {
            var element = document.getElementById(elementToFade);

            element.style.opacity += 0.1;
            if(element.style.opacity > 1.0) {
                element.style.opacity = 1.0;
            } else {
                setTimeout("fadeIn(\"" + elementToFade + "\")", 100);
            }
        }

        function fadeOut(elementToFade)
        {
            var element = document.getElementById(elementToFade);

            element.style.opacity -= 0.1;
            if(element.style.opacity < 0.0) {
                element.style.opacity = 0.0;
            } else {
                setTimeout("fadeOut(\"" + elementToFade + "\")", 100);
            }
        }
        //]]>
    </script>
 </head>
 <body>
    <div>
        <div id="slideSource"
              style="width:150px; height:20px;
                    text-align:center; background:green"
             onclick="slidePanel('panel', this)">
            Take It up
        </div>
        <div id="panel"
              style="width:150px; height:130px;
                    text-align:center; background:red;
                    opacity:1.0;">
            Contents
        </div>
    </div>
</body>
</html>

What am I doing wrong and what is the best way to fade in and fade out an element?

Here is a more efficient way of fading out an element:

function fade(element) {
    var op = 1;  // initial opacity
    var timer = setInterval(function () {
        if (op <= 0.1){
            clearInterval(timer);
            element.style.display = 'none';
        }
        element.style.opacity = op;
        element.style.filter = 'alpha(opacity=' + op * 100 + ")";
        op -= op * 0.1;
    }, 50);
}

you can do the reverse for fade in

setInterval or setTimeout should not get a string as argument

google the evils of eval to know why

And here is a more efficient way of fading in an element.

function unfade(element) {
    var op = 0.1;  // initial opacity
    element.style.display = 'block';
    var timer = setInterval(function () {
        if (op >= 1){
            clearInterval(timer);
        }
        element.style.opacity = op;
        element.style.filter = 'alpha(opacity=' + op * 100 + ")";
        op += op * 0.1;
    }, 10);
}

Here is a simplified running example of Seattle Ninja's solution.

var slideSource = document.getElementById('slideSource');

document.getElementById('handle').onclick = function () {
  slideSource.classList.toggle('fade');
}
#slideSource {
  opacity: 1;
  transition: opacity 1s; 
}

#slideSource.fade {
  opacity: 0;
}
<button id="handle">Fade</button> 
<div id="slideSource">Whatever you want here - images or text</div>


why do that to yourself?

jQuery:

$("#element").fadeOut();
$("#element").fadeIn();

I think that's easier.

www.jquery.com


Here's my attempt with Javascript and CSS3 animation So the HTML:

 <div id="handle">Fade</div> 
 <div id="slideSource">Whatever you want images or  text here</div>

The CSS3 with transitions:

div#slideSource {
opacity:1;
-webkit-transition: opacity 3s;
-moz-transition: opacity 3s;     
transition: opacity 3s; 
}

div#slideSource.fade {
opacity:0;
}

The Javascript part. Check if the className exists, if it does then add the class and transitions.

document.getElementById('handle').onclick = function(){
    if(slideSource.className){
        document.getElementById('slideSource').className = '';
    } else {
        document.getElementById('slideSource').className = 'fade';
    }
}

Just click and it will fade in and out. I would recommend using JQuery as Itai Sagi mentioned. I left out Opera and MS, so I would recommend using prefixr to add that in the css. This is my first time posting on stackoverflow but it should work fine.


Ok, I've worked it out

element.style.opacity = parseFloat(element.style.opacity) + 0.1;

Should be used instead of

element.style.opacity += 0.1;

Same with

element.style.opacity = parseFloat(element.style.opacity) - 0.1;

Instead of

element.style.opacity -= 0.1;

Because opacity value is stored as string, not as float. I'm still not sure though why the addition has worked.


I usually use these utility functions. element is the HTML element and duration is the desired duration in milliseconds.

export const fadeIn = (element, duration) => {
    (function increment(value = 0) {
        element.style.opacity = String(value);
        if (element.style.opacity !== '1') {
            setTimeout(() => {
                increment(value + 0.1);
            }, duration / 10);
        }
    })();
};

export const fadeOut = (element, duration) => {
    (function decrement() {
        (element.style.opacity -= 0.1) < 0 ? element.style.display = 'none' : setTimeout(() => {
            decrement();
        }, duration / 10);
    })();
};

I like Ibu's one but, I think I have a better solution using his idea.

//Fade In.
element.style.opacity = 0;
var Op1 = 0;
var Op2 = 1;
var foo1, foo2;
foo1 = setInterval(Timer1, 20);
function Timer1()
{
    element.style.opacity = Op1;
    Op1 = Op1 + .01;
    console.log(Op1); //Option, but I recommend it for testing purposes.
    if (Op1 > 1)
    {
        clearInterval(foo1);
        foo2 = setInterval(Timer3, 20);
    }
}

This solution uses a additional equation unlike Ibu's solution, which used a multiplicative equation. The way it works is it takes a time increment (t), an opacity increment (o), and a opacity limit (l) in the equation, which is: (T = time of fade in miliseconds) [T = (l/o)*t]. the "20" represents the time increments or intervals (t), the ".01" represents the opacity increments (o), and the 1 represents the opacity limit (l). When you plug the numbers in the equation you get 2000 milliseconds (or 2 seconds). Here is the console log:

0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.060000000000000005
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.09999999999999999
0.10999999999999999
0.11999999999999998
0.12999999999999998
0.13999999999999999
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18000000000000002
0.19000000000000003
0.20000000000000004
0.21000000000000005
0.22000000000000006
0.23000000000000007
0.24000000000000007
0.25000000000000006
0.26000000000000006
0.2700000000000001
0.2800000000000001
0.2900000000000001
0.3000000000000001
0.3100000000000001
0.3200000000000001
0.3300000000000001
0.34000000000000014
0.35000000000000014
0.36000000000000015
0.37000000000000016
0.38000000000000017
0.3900000000000002
0.4000000000000002
0.4100000000000002
0.4200000000000002
0.4300000000000002
0.4400000000000002
0.45000000000000023
0.46000000000000024
0.47000000000000025
0.48000000000000026
0.49000000000000027
0.5000000000000002
0.5100000000000002
0.5200000000000002
0.5300000000000002
0.5400000000000003
0.5500000000000003
0.5600000000000003
0.5700000000000003
0.5800000000000003
0.5900000000000003
0.6000000000000003
0.6100000000000003
0.6200000000000003
0.6300000000000003
0.6400000000000003
0.6500000000000004
0.6600000000000004
0.6700000000000004
0.6800000000000004
0.6900000000000004
0.7000000000000004
0.7100000000000004
0.7200000000000004
0.7300000000000004
0.7400000000000004
0.7500000000000004
0.7600000000000005
0.7700000000000005
0.7800000000000005
0.7900000000000005
0.8000000000000005
0.8100000000000005
0.8200000000000005
0.8300000000000005
0.8400000000000005
0.8500000000000005
0.8600000000000005
0.8700000000000006
0.8800000000000006
0.8900000000000006
0.9000000000000006
0.9100000000000006
0.9200000000000006
0.9300000000000006
0.9400000000000006
0.9500000000000006
0.9600000000000006
0.9700000000000006
0.9800000000000006
0.9900000000000007
1.0000000000000007
1.0100000000000007

Notice how the opacity follows the opacity increment amount of .01 just like in the code. If you use the code Ibu made,

//I made slight edits but keeped the ESSENTIAL stuff in it.
var op = 0.01;  // initial opacity
var timer = setInterval(function () {
    if (op >= 1){
        clearInterval(timer);
    }
    element.style.opacity = op;
    op += op * 0.1;
}, 20);

you will get these numbers (or something similar) in you console log. Here is what I got.

0.0101
0.010201
0.01030301
0.0104060401
0.010510100501
0.010615201506009999
0.0107213535210701
0.0108285670562808
0.010936852726843608
0.011046221254112044
0.011156683466653165
0.011268250301319695
0.011380932804332892
0.01149474213237622
0.011609689553699983
0.011725786449236983
0.011843044313729352
0.011961474756866645
0.012081089504435313
0.012201900399479666
0.012323919403474463
0.012447158597509207
0.0125716301834843
0.012697346485319142
0.012824319950172334
0.012952563149674056
0.013082088781170797
0.013212909668982505
0.01334503876567233
0.013478489153329052
0.013613274044862343
0.013749406785310966
0.013886900853164076
0.014025769861695717
0.014166027560312674
0.014307687835915801
0.01445076471427496
0.01459527236141771
0.014741225085031886
0.014888637335882205
0.015037523709241028
0.015187898946333437
0.01533977793579677
0.015493175715154739
0.015648107472306286
0.01580458854702935
0.015962634432499644
0.01612226077682464
0.016283483384592887
0.016446318218438817
0.016610781400623206
0.01677688921462944
0.016944658106775732
0.01711410468784349
0.017285245734721923
0.017458098192069144
0.017632679173989835
0.01780900596572973
0.01798709602538703
0.018166966985640902
0.01834863665549731
0.018532123022052285
0.018717444252272807
0.018904618694795535
0.01909366488174349
0.019284601530560927
0.019477447545866538
0.0196722220213252
0.019868944241538455
0.02006763368395384
0.02026831002079338
0.020470993121001313
0.020675703052211326
0.02088246008273344
0.021091284683560776
0.021302197530396385
0.02151521950570035
0.021730371700757353
0.021947675417764927
0.022167152171942577
0.022388823693662
0.022612711930598623
0.022838839049904608
0.023067227440403654
0.02329789971480769
0.023530878711955767
0.023766187499075324
0.024003849374066077
0.02424388786780674
0.024486326746484807
0.024731190013949654
0.024978501914089152
0.025228286933230044
0.025480569802562344
0.025735375500587968
0.025992729255593847
0.026252656548149785
0.026515183113631283
0.026780334944767597
0.027048138294215273
0.027318619677157426
0.027591805873929
0.02786772393266829
0.028146401171994972
0.028427865183714922
0.02871214383555207
0.02899926527390759
0.029289257926646668
0.029582150505913136
0.029877972010972267
0.030176751731081992
0.030478519248392812
0.03078330444087674
0.031091137485285508
0.031402048860138365
0.03171606934873975
0.03203323004222715
0.03235356234264942
0.03267709796607591
0.03300386894573667
0.03333390763519403
0.03366724671154597
0.03400391917866143
0.03434395837044805
0.03468739795415253
0.03503427193369406
0.035384614653031
0.035738460799561306
0.03609584540755692
0.03645680386163249
0.03682137190024882
0.03718958561925131
0.03756148147544382
0.03793709629019826
0.03831646725310024
0.038699631925631243
0.03908662824488755
0.039477494527336426
0.03987226947260979
0.040270992167335894
0.04067370208900925
0.04108043910989934
0.04149124350099834
0.04190615593600832
0.042325217495368404
0.04274846967032209
0.04317595436702531
0.04360771391069556
0.044043791049802515
0.04448422896030054
0.04492907124990354
0.04537836196240258
0.045832145582026605
0.04629046703784687
0.04675337170822534
0.047220905425307595
0.04769311447956067
0.04817004562435628
0.04865174608059984
0.04913826354140584
0.0496296461768199
0.0501259426385881
0.05062720206497398
0.05113347408562372
0.05164480882647996
0.05216125691474476
0.05268286948389221
0.053209698178731134
0.05374179516051845
0.05427921311212363
0.05482200524324487
0.05537022529567732
0.05592392754863409
0.056483166824120426
0.05704799849236163
0.05761847847728525
0.0581946632620581
0.05877660989467868
0.059364375993625464
0.05995801975356172
0.060557599951097336
0.06116317595060831
0.06177480771011439
0.06239255578721554
0.0630164813450877
0.06364664615853857
0.06428311262012396
0.0649259437463252
0.06557520318378844
0.06623095521562633
0.0668932647677826
0.06756219741546042
0.06823781938961503
0.06892019758351117
0.06960939955934628
0.07030549355493974
0.07100854849048914
0.07171863397539403
0.07243582031514798
0.07316017851829945
0.07389178030348245
0.07463069810651728
0.07537700508758245
0.07613077513845827
0.07689208288984285
0.07766100371874128
0.0784376137559287
0.07922198989348798
0.08001420979242287
0.0808143518903471
0.08162249540925057
0.08243872036334307
0.0832631075669765
0.08409573864264626
0.08493669602907272
0.08578606298936345
0.08664392361925709
0.08751036285544966
0.08838546648400417
0.08926932114884421
0.09016201436033265
0.09106363450393598
0.09197427084897535
0.0928940135574651
0.09382295369303975
0.09476118322997015
0.09570879506226986
0.09666588301289256
0.09763254184302148
0.0986088672614517
0.09959495593406621
0.10059090549340688
0.10159681454834095
0.10261278269382436
0.1036389105207626
0.10467529962597022
0.10572205262222992
0.10677927314845222
0.10784706587993674
0.10892553653873611
0.11001479190412347
0.1111149398231647
0.11222608922139635
0.11334835011361032
0.11448183361474643
0.11562665195089389
0.11678291847040283
0.11795074765510685
0.11913025513165793
0.1203215576829745
0.12152477325980425
0.12274002099240229
0.12396742120232632
0.12520709541434957
0.12645916636849308
0.127723758032178
0.12900099561249978
0.13029100556862477
0.13159391562431103
0.13290985478055414
0.1342389533283597
0.13558134286164328
0.1369371562902597
0.1383065278531623
0.13968959313169393
0.14108648906301088
0.142497353953641
0.1439223274931774
0.14536155076810917
0.14681516627579025
0.14828331793854815
0.14976615111793362
0.15126381262911295
0.15277645075540408
0.15430421526295812
0.1558472574155877
0.15740572998974356
0.158979787289641
0.1605695851625374
0.16217528101416276
0.16379703382430438
0.16543500416254742
0.1670893542041729
0.16876024774621462
0.17044785022367676
0.17215232872591352
0.17387385201317265
0.17561259053330439
0.17736871643863744
0.1791424036030238
0.18093382763905405
0.1827431659154446
0.18457059757459904
0.18641630355034502
0.1882804665858485
0.19016327125170698
0.19206490396422404
0.19398555300386627
0.19592540853390494
0.197884662619244
0.19986350924543644
0.20186214433789082
0.20388076578126973
0.20591957343908243
0.20797876917347324
0.21005855686520797
0.21215914243386005
0.21428073385819865
0.21642354119678064
0.21858777660874845
0.22077365437483593
0.2229813909185843
0.22521120482777013
0.22746331687604782
0.2297379500448083
0.23203532954525638
0.23435568284070896
0.23669923966911605
0.2390662320658072
0.24145689438646528
0.24387146333032994
0.24631017796363325
0.24877327974326957
0.25126101254070227
0.2537736226661093
0.2563113588927704
0.2588744724816981
0.26146321720651505
0.2640778493785802
0.266718627872366
0.26938581415108964
0.27207967229260055
0.27480046901552657
0.27754847370568186
0.28032395844273866
0.28312719802716607
0.28595847000743774
0.2888180547075121
0.2917062352545872
0.2946232976071331
0.2975695305832044
0.3005452258890364
0.3035506781479268
0.3065861849294061
0.3096520467787002
0.3127485672464872
0.31587605291895204
0.31903481344814155
0.322225161582623
0.3254474131984492
0.3287018873304337
0.33198890620373805
0.33530879526577545
0.3386618832184332
0.34204850205061754
0.3454689870711237
0.34892367694183496
0.35241291371125333
0.35593704284836586
0.3594964132768495
0.363091377409618
0.3667222911837142
0.3703895140955513
0.37409340923650686
0.37783434332887195
0.38161268676216065
0.38542881362978226
0.3892831017660801
0.3931759327837409
0.3971076921115783
0.40107876903269407
0.405089556723021
0.4091404522902512
0.4132318568131537
0.41736417538128523
0.4215378171350981
0.42575319530644906
0.43001072725951356
0.43431083453210867
0.43865394287742976
0.4430404823062041
0.44747088712926614
0.4519455960005588
0.45646505196056436
0.46102970248017
0.4656399995049717
0.47029639950002144
0.47499936349502164
0.47974935712997185
0.48454685070127157
0.4893923192082843
0.4942862424003671
0.4992291048243708
0.5042213958726145
0.5092636098313407
0.5143562459296541
0.5194998083889507
0.5246948064728402
0.5299417545375685
0.5352411720829442
0.5405935838037736
0.5459995196418114
0.5514595148382295
0.5569741099866118
0.5625438510864779
0.5681692895973427
0.5738509824933161
0.5795894923182493
0.5853853872414317
0.5912392411138461
0.5971516335249846
0.6031231498602344
0.6091543813588367
0.615245925172425
0.6213983844241493
0.6276123682683908
0.6338884919510748
0.6402273768705855
0.6466296506392913
0.6530959471456843
0.6596269066171412
0.6662231756833126
0.6728854074401457
0.6796142615145472
0.6864104041296927
0.6932745081709896
0.7002072532526995
0.7072093257852266
0.7142814190430788
0.7214242332335097
0.7286384755658448
0.7359248603215033
0.7432841089247183
0.7507169500139654
0.7582241195141051
0.7658063607092461
0.7734644243163386
0.7811990685595019
0.789011059245097
0.7969011698375479
0.8048701815359234
0.8129188833512826
0.8210480721847955
0.8292585529066434
0.8375511384357098
0.8459266498200669
0.8543859163182677
0.8629297754814503
0.8715590732362648
0.8802746639686274
0.8890774106083137
0.8979681847143969
0.9069478665615408
0.9160173452271562
0.9251775186794278
0.9344292938662221
0.9437735868048843
0.9532113226729332
0.9627434358996625
0.9723708702586591
0.9820945789612456
0.9919155247508581
1.0018346799983666
1.0118530267983503

Notice that there is no discernible pattern. If you ran Ibu's code, you would never know how long the fade was. You would have to grab a timer and guess and check 2 seconds. Nonetheless, Ibu's code did make a pretty nice fade in (it probably works for fade out. I don't know because I didn't use a fade out yet). My code will also work for a fade out. Let's just say you wanted 2 seconds for a fade out. You can do that with my code. Here is how it would look:

//Fade out. (Continued from the fade in.
function Timer2()
{
    element.style.opacity = Op2;
    Op2 = Op2 - .01;
    console.log(Op2); //Option, but I recommend it for testing purposes.
    if (Op2 < 0)
    { 
        clearInterval(foo2);
    }
}

All I did was change the opacity to 1 (or fully opaque). I changed the opacity increment to -.01 so it would start turning invisible. Lastly, I changed the opacity limit to 0. When it hits the opacity limit, the timer will stop. Same as the last one, except it used 1 instead of 0. When you run the code, here is what the console log should relatively look like.

.99
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.9299999999999999
0.9199999999999999
0.9099999999999999
0.8999999999999999
0.8899999999999999
0.8799999999999999
0.8699999999999999
0.8599999999999999
0.8499999999999999
0.8399999999999999
0.8299999999999998
0.8199999999999998
0.8099999999999998
0.7999999999999998
0.7899999999999998
0.7799999999999998
0.7699999999999998
0.7599999999999998
0.7499999999999998
0.7399999999999998
0.7299999999999998
0.7199999999999998
0.7099999999999997
0.6999999999999997
0.6899999999999997
0.6799999999999997
0.6699999999999997
0.6599999999999997
0.6499999999999997
0.6399999999999997
0.6299999999999997
0.6199999999999997
0.6099999999999997
0.5999999999999996
0.5899999999999996
0.5799999999999996
0.5699999999999996
0.5599999999999996
0.5499999999999996
0.5399999999999996
0.5299999999999996
0.5199999999999996
0.5099999999999996
0.49999999999999956
0.48999999999999955
0.47999999999999954
0.46999999999999953
0.4599999999999995
0.4499999999999995
0.4399999999999995
0.4299999999999995
0.4199999999999995
0.4099999999999995
0.39999999999999947
0.38999999999999946
0.37999999999999945
0.36999999999999944
0.35999999999999943
0.3499999999999994
0.3399999999999994
0.3299999999999994
0.3199999999999994
0.3099999999999994
0.2999999999999994
0.28999999999999937
0.27999999999999936
0.26999999999999935
0.25999999999999934
0.24999999999999933
0.23999999999999932
0.22999999999999932
0.2199999999999993
0.2099999999999993
0.1999999999999993
0.18999999999999928
0.17999999999999927
0.16999999999999926
0.15999999999999925
0.14999999999999925
0.13999999999999924
0.12999999999999923
0.11999999999999923
0.10999999999999924
0.09999999999999924
0.08999999999999925
0.07999999999999925
0.06999999999999926
0.059999999999999255
0.04999999999999925
0.03999999999999925
0.02999999999999925
0.019999999999999248
0.009999999999999247
-7.528699885739343e-16
-0.010000000000000753

As you can see, the .01 pattern still exists in the fade out. Both fades are smooth and precise. I hope these codes helped you or gave you insight on the topic. If you have any additions or suggestions let me know. Thank you for taking the time to view this!


I think i get the problem :

Once you make the div fade out you aren't exiting the function : fadeout calls itself again over even after opacity has become 0

if(element.style.opacity < 0.0) {
            return;
        } 

And do the same for fadein too


Heres my code for a fade in/out toggle functions.

fadeIn: function (len) {
                var obj = this.e;
                obj.style.display = '';
                var op = 0; 
                var timer = setInterval(function () {
                    if (op >= 1 || op >= 1.0){
                        console.log('done', op)
                        clearInterval(timer);
                    }
                    obj.style.opacity = op.toFixed(1);
                    op += 0.1;
                    console.log(obj.style.opacity);
                }, len);
                return this;
            },
    fadeOut: function (len) {
                var obj = this.e;
                var op = 1; 
                var timer = setInterval(function () {
                    if (op <= 0){
                        clearInterval(timer);
                        console.log('done', op)
                        obj.style.display = 'none';
                    }
                    obj.style.opacity = op.toFixed(1);
                    op -= 0.1;
                    console.log(obj.style.opacity)
                }, len);
                return this;
            },

This was from a jQuery style lib i did. hope it's helpfull. link to lib on cloud9: https://c9.io/christopherdumas/magik_wb


The following javascript will fade in an element from opacity 0 to whatever the opacity value was at the time of calling fade in. You can also set the duration of the animation which is nice:

    function fadeIn(element) {
        var duration = 0.5;
        var interval = 10;//ms
        var op = 0.0;
        var iop = element.style.opacity;
        var timer = setInterval(function () {
            if (op >= iop) {
                op = iop;
                clearInterval(timer);
            }
            element.style.opacity = op;
            op += iop/((1000/interval)*duration);
        }, interval);
    }

*Based on IBUs answer but modified to account for previous opacity value and ability to set duration, also removed irrelevant CSS changes it was making


let count=0;
    let text = document.getElementById('heading');
    let btn = document.getElementById('btn');
    btn.addEventListener('click', function(){
        if(count%2==0){
            text.style.opacity="0.1";
            unfade(text);
       text.innerText="Welcome to Javascript </>"; 
            text.style.color="forestgreen";
                }//end of if
        else{   text.style.opacity="0.1";
            unfade(text);
            text.innerText="Hello javascript"; 
             text.style.color="blueviolet";
}//end of else
        count++;//for toggling the text
    });
    //function for fade effect--------
    function unfade(element) {
    var op = 0.1;  // initial opacity
    element.style.display = 'block';
    var timer = setInterval(function () {
        if (op >= 1){
            clearInterval(timer);
        }
        element.style.opacity = op;
        element.style.filter = 'alpha(opacity=' + op * 100 + ")";
        op += op * 0.1;
    }, 30);
}
<h1 style="color:blueviolet" id="heading">Hello javascript</h1>
<button id="btn">Click me</button>