How do you add CSS with Javascript?

How do you add CSS rules (eg strong { color: red }) by use of Javascript?

You can also do this using DOM Level 2 CSS interfaces (MDN):

var sheet = window.document.styleSheets[0];
sheet.insertRule('strong { color: red; }', sheet.cssRules.length);

...on all but (naturally) IE8 and prior, which uses its own marginally-different wording:

sheet.addRule('strong', 'color: red;', -1);

There is a theoretical advantage in this compared to the createElement-set-innerHTML method, in that you don't have to worry about putting special HTML characters in the innerHTML, but in practice style elements are CDATA in legacy HTML, and ‘<’ and ‘&’ are rarely used in stylesheets anyway.

You do need a stylesheet in place before you can started appending to it like this. That can be any existing active stylesheet: external, embedded or empty, it doesn't matter. If there isn't one, the only standard way to create it at the moment is with createElement.

The simple-and-direct approach is to create and add a new style node to the document.

// Your CSS as text
var styles = `
    .qwebirc-qui .ircwindow div { 
        font-family: Georgia,Cambria,"Times New Roman",Times,serif;
        margin: 26px auto 0 auto;
        max-width: 650px;
    .qwebirc-qui .lines {
        font-size: 18px;
        line-height: 1.58;
        letter-spacing: -.004em;

    .qwebirc-qui .nicklist a {
        margin: 6px;

var styleSheet = document.createElement("style")
styleSheet.type = "text/css"
styleSheet.innerText = styles

The solution by Ben Blank wouldn't work in IE8 for me.

However this did work in IE8

function addCss(cssCode) {
var styleElement = document.createElement("style");
  styleElement.type = "text/css";
  if (styleElement.styleSheet) {
    styleElement.styleSheet.cssText = cssCode;
  } else {

Here's a slightly updated version of Chris Herring's solution, taking into account that you can use innerHTML as well instead of a creating a new text node:

function insertCss( code ) {
    var style = document.createElement('style');
    style.type = 'text/css';

    if (style.styleSheet) {
        // IE
        style.styleSheet.cssText = code;
    } else {
        // Other browsers
        style.innerHTML = code;

    document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0].appendChild( style );

You can add classes or style attributes on an element by element basis.

For example:

<a name="myelement" onclick="'#FF0';">text</a>

Where you could do,, etc. You can also apply a style using this same method ala


If you want to do this in a javascript function, you can use getElementByID rather than 'this'.

This easy example of add <style> in head of html

var sheet = document.createElement('style');
sheet.innerHTML = "table th{padding-bottom: 0 !important;padding-top: 0 !important;}\n"
+ "table ul {    margin-top: 0 !important;    margin-bottom: 0 !important;}\n"
+ "table td{padding-bottom: 0 !important;padding-top: 0 !important;}\n"
+ ".messages.error{display:none !important;}\n"
+ ".messages.status{display:none !important;} ";

document.body.appendChild(sheet); // append in body
document.head.appendChild(sheet); // append in head

Source Dynamic style - manipulating CSS with JavaScript

YUI just recently added a utility specifically for this. See stylesheet.js here.

Shortest One Liner

// One liner function:
const addCSS = (s)=>((d,e)=>{ e = d.createElement("style");e.innerHTML = s;d.head.appendChild(e)})(document);

// Usage: 
addCSS("body{ background:red; }")

This is my solution to add a css rule at the end of the last style sheet list:

var css = new function()
    function addStyleSheet()
        let head = document.head;
        let style = document.createElement("style");


    this.insert = function(rule)
        if(document.styleSheets.length == 0) { addStyleSheet(); }

        let sheet = document.styleSheets[document.styleSheets.length - 1];
        let rules = sheet.rules;

        sheet.insertRule(rule, rules.length);

css.insert("body { background-color: red }");

Another option is to use JQuery to store the element's in-line style property, append to it, and to then update the element's style property with the new values. As follows:

function appendCSSToElement(element, CssProperties)
            var existingCSS = $(element).attr("style");

             if(existingCSS == undefined) existingCSS = "";

            $.each(CssProperties, function(key,value)
                existingCSS += " " + key + ": " + value + ";";

            $(element).attr("style", existingCSS);

            return $(element);

And then execute it with the new CSS attributes as an object.

appendCSSToElement("#ElementID", { "color": "white", "background-color": "green", "font-weight": "bold" });

This may not necessarily be the most efficient method (I'm open to suggestions on how to improve this. :) ), but it definitely works.

Here's a sample template to help you get started

Requires 0 libraries and uses only javascript to inject both HTML and CSS.

The function was borrowed from the user @Husky above

Useful if you want to run a tampermonkey script and wanted to add a toggle overlay on a website (e.g. a note app for instance)

document.querySelector('body').innerHTML += '<div id="injection">Hello World</div>';

function insertCss( code ) {
    var style = document.createElement('style');
    style.type = 'text/css';
    if (style.styleSheet) {
        // IE
        style.styleSheet.cssText = code;
    } else {
        // Other browsers
        style.innerHTML = code;
    document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0].appendChild( style );

// Write the css as you normally would... but treat it as strings and concatenate for multilines
  "#injection {color :red; font-size: 30px;}" +
  "body {background-color: lightblue;}"

if you know at least one <style> tag exist in page , use this function :


usage :


Here's my general-purpose function which parametrizes the CSS selector and rules, and optionally takes in a css filename (case-sensitive) if you wish to add to a particular sheet instead (otherwise, if you don't provide a CSS filename, it will create a new style element and append it to the existing head. It will make at most one new style element and re-use it on future function calls). Works with FF, Chrome, and IE9+ (maybe earlier too, untested).

function addCssRules(selector, rules, /*Optional*/ sheetName) {
    // We want the last sheet so that rules are not overridden.
    var styleSheet = document.styleSheets[document.styleSheets.length - 1];
    if (sheetName) {
        for (var i in document.styleSheets) {
            if (document.styleSheets[i].href && document.styleSheets[i].href.indexOf(sheetName) > -1) {
                styleSheet = document.styleSheets[i];
    if (typeof styleSheet === 'undefined' || styleSheet === null) {
        var styleElement = document.createElement("style");
        styleElement.type = "text/css";
        styleSheet = styleElement.sheet;

    if (styleSheet) {
        if (styleSheet.insertRule)
            styleSheet.insertRule(selector + ' {' + rules + '}', styleSheet.cssRules.length);
        else if (styleSheet.addRule)
            styleSheet.addRule(selector, rules);

use .css in Jquery like $('strong').css('background','red');

<script src=""></script>
<strong> Example