React js onClick can't pass value to method


I want to read the onClick event value properties. But when I click on it, I see something like this on the console:

SyntheticMouseEvent {dispatchConfig: Object, dispatchMarker: ".1.1.0.2.0.0:1", nativeEvent: MouseEvent, type: "click", target

My code is working correctly. When I run I can see {column} but can't get it in the onClick event.

My Code:

var HeaderRows = React.createClass({
  handleSort:  function(value) {
    console.log(value);
  },
  render: function () {
    var that = this;
    return(
      <tr>
        {this.props.defaultColumns.map(function (column) {
          return (
            <th value={column} onClick={that.handleSort} >{column}</th>
          );
        })}
        {this.props.externalColumns.map(function (column) {
          // Multi dimension array - 0 is column name
          var externalColumnName = column[0];
          return ( <th>{externalColumnName}</th>);
        })}
      </tr>
    );
  }
});

How can I pass a value to the onClick event in React js?

Easy Way

Use an arrow function:

return (
  <th value={column} onClick={() => this.handleSort(column)}>{column}</th>
);

This will create a new function that calls handleSort with the right params.

Better Way

Extract it into a sub-component. The problem with using an arrow function in the render call is it will create a new function every time, which ends up causing unneeded re-renders.

If you create a sub-component, you can pass handler and use props as the arguments, which will then re-render only when the props change (because the handler reference now never changes):

Sub-component

class TableHeader extends Component {
  handleClick = () => {
    this.props.onHeaderClick(this.props.value);
  }

  render() {
    return (
      <th onClick={this.handleClick}>
        {this.props.column}
      </th>
    );
  }
}

Main component

{this.props.defaultColumns.map((column) => (
  <TableHeader
    value={column}
    onHeaderClick={this.handleSort}
  />
))}

Old Easy Way (ES5)

Use .bind to pass the parameter you want:

return (
  <th value={column} onClick={that.handleSort.bind(that, column)}>{column}</th>
);

There are nice answers here, and i agree with @Austin Greco (the second option with separate components)
There is another way i like, currying.
What you can do is create a function that accept a parameter (your parameter) and returns another function that accepts another parameter (the click event in this case). then you are free to do with it what ever you want.

ES5:

handleChange(param) { // param is the argument you passed to the function
    return function (e) { // e is the event object that returned

    };
}

ES6:

handleChange = param => e => {
    // param is the argument you passed to the function
    // e is the event object that returned
};

And you will use it this way:

<input 
    type="text" 
    onChange={this.handleChange(someParam)} 
/>

Here is a full example of such usage:

const someArr = ["A", "B", "C", "D"];

class App extends React.Component {
  state = {
    valueA: "",
    valueB: "some initial value",
    valueC: "",
    valueD: "blah blah"
  };

  handleChange = param => e => {
    const nextValue = e.target.value;
    this.setState({ ["value" + param]: nextValue });
  };

  render() {
    return (
      <div>
        {someArr.map(obj => {
          return (
            <div>
              <label>
                {`input ${obj}   `}
              </label>
              <input
                type="text"
                value={this.state["value" + obj]}
                onChange={this.handleChange(obj)}
              />
              <br />
              <br />
            </div>
          );
        })}
      </div>
    );
  }
}

const rootElement = document.getElementById("root");
ReactDOM.render(<App />, rootElement);
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/react/15.1.0/react.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/react/15.1.0/react-dom.min.js"></script>
<div id="root"></div>

Note that this approach doesn't solve the creation of a new instance on each render.
I like this approach over the other inline handlers as this one is more concise and readable in my opinion.

Edit:
As suggested in the comments below, you can cache / memoize the result of the function.

Here is a naive implementation:

let memo = {};

const someArr = ["A", "B", "C", "D"];

class App extends React.Component {
  state = {
    valueA: "",
    valueB: "some initial value",
    valueC: "",
    valueD: "blah blah"
  };

  handleChange = param => {
    const handler = e => {
      const nextValue = e.target.value;
      this.setState({ ["value" + param]: nextValue });
    }
    if (!memo[param]) {
      memo[param] = e => handler(e)
    }
    return memo[param]
  };

  render() {
    return (
      <div>
        {someArr.map(obj => {
          return (
            <div key={obj}>
              <label>
                {`input ${obj}   `}
              </label>
              <input
                type="text"
                value={this.state["value" + obj]}
                onChange={this.handleChange(obj)}
              />
              <br />
              <br />
            </div>
          );
        })}
      </div>
    );
  }
}

const rootElement = document.getElementById("root");
ReactDOM.render(<App />, rootElement);
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/react/15.1.0/react.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/react/15.1.0/react-dom.min.js"></script>
<div id="root" />


Nowadays, with ES6, I feel we could use an updated answer.

return (
  <th value={column} onClick={()=>this.handleSort(column)} >{column}</th>
);

Basically, (for any that don't know) since onClick is expecting a function passed to it, bind works because it creates a copy of a function. Instead we can pass an arrow function expression that simply invokes the function we want, and preserves this. You should never need to bind the render method in React, but if for some reason you're losing this in one of your component methods:

constructor(props) {
  super(props);
  this.myMethod = this.myMethod.bind(this);
}

[[h/t to @E.Sundin for linking this in a comment]

The top answer (anonymous functions or binding) will work, but it's not the most performant, as it creates a copy of the event handler for every instance generated by the map() function.

This is an explanation of the optimal way to do it from the ESLint-plugin-react:

Lists of Items

A common use case of bind in render is when rendering a list, to have a separate callback per list item:

const List = props => (
      <ul>
        {props.items.map(item =>
          <li key={item.id} onClick={() => console.log(item.id)}>
            ...
          </li>
        )}
      </ul>
    );

Rather than doing it this way, pull the repeated section into its own component:

const List = props => (
      <ul>
        {props.items.map(item =>
          <ListItem 
            key={item.id} 
            item={item} 
            onItemClick={props.onItemClick} // assume this is passed down to List
           />
        )}
      </ul>
    );


const ListItem = props => {
  const _onClick = () => {
    console.log(props.item.id);
  }
    return (
      <li onClick={_onClick}>
        ...
      </li>
    );

});

This will speed up rendering, as it avoids the need to create new functions (through bind calls) on every render.


This is my approach, not sure how bad it is, please comment

In the clickable element

return (
    <th value={column} onClick={that.handleSort} data-column={column}>   {column}</th>
);

and then

handleSort(e){
    this.sortOn(e.currentTarget.getAttribute('data-column'));
}

this example might be little different from yours. but i can assure you that this is the best solution you can have for this problem. i have searched for days for a solution which has no performance issue. and finally came up with this one.

class HtmlComponent extends React.Component {
  constructor() {
    super();
    this.state={
       name:'MrRehman',
    };
    this.handleClick= this.handleClick.bind(this);
  }

  handleClick(event) {
    const { param } = e.target.dataset;
    console.log(param);
    //do what you want to do with the parameter
  }

  render() {
    return (
      <div>
        <h3 data-param="value what you wanted to pass" onClick={this.handleClick}>
          {this.state.name}
        </h3>
      </div>
    );
  }
}

UPDATE

incase you want to deal with objects that are supposed to be the parameters. you can use JSON.stringify(object) to convert to it to string and add to the data set.

return (
   <div>
     <h3 data-param={JSON.stringify({name:'me'})} onClick={this.handleClick}>
        {this.state.name}
     </h3>
   </div>
);

class extends React.Component {
    onClickDiv = (column) => {
        // do stuff
    }
    render() {
        return <div onClick={() => this.onClickDiv('123')} />
    }
}

One more option not involving .bind or ES6 is to use a child component with a handler to call the parent handler with the necessary props. Here's an example (and a link to working example is below):

var HeaderRows = React.createClass({
  handleSort:  function(value) {
     console.log(value);
  },
  render: function () {
      var that = this;
      return(
          <tr>
              {this.props.defaultColumns.map(function (column) {
                  return (
                      <TableHeader value={column} onClick={that.handleSort} >
                        {column}
                      </TableHeader>
                  );
              })}
              {this.props.externalColumns.map(function (column) {
                  // Multi dimension array - 0 is column name
                  var externalColumnName = column[0];
                  return ( <th>{externalColumnName}</th>
                  );
              })}
          </tr>);
      )
  }
});

// A child component to pass the props back to the parent handler
var TableHeader = React.createClass({
  propTypes: {
    value: React.PropTypes.string,
    onClick: React.PropTypes.func
  },
  render: function () {
    return (
      <th value={this.props.value} onClick={this._handleClick}
        {this.props.children}
      </th>
    )        
  },
  _handleClick: function () {
    if (this.props.onClick) {
      this.props.onClick(this.props.value);
    }
  }
});

The basic idea is for the parent component to pass the onClick function to a child component. The child component calls the onClick function and can access any props passed to it (and the event), allowing you to use any event value or other props within the parent's onClick function.

Here's a CodePen demo showing this method in action.


I realize this is pretty late to the party, but I think a much simpler solution could satisfy many use cases:

    handleEdit(event) {
        let value = event.target.value;
    }

    ...

    <button
        value={post.id}
        onClick={this.handleEdit} >Edit</button>

I presume you could also use a data- attribute.

Simple, semantic.


Simply create a function like this

  function methodName(params) {
    //the thing  you wanna do
  }

and call it in the place you need

< Icon onClick = { () => { methodName(theParamsYouwantToPass); } }/ >


Making alternate attempt to answer OP's question including e.preventDefault() calls:

Rendered link (ES6)

<a href="#link" onClick={(e) => this.handleSort(e, 'myParam')}>

Component Function

handleSort = (e, param) => {
  e.preventDefault();
  console.log('Sorting by: ' + param)
}

You can simply do it if you are using ES6.

export default class Container extends Component {
  state = {
    data: [
        // ...
    ]
  }

  handleItemChange = (e, data) => {
      // here the data is available 
      // ....
  }
  render () {
     return (
        <div>
        {
           this.state.data.map((item, index) => (
              <div key={index}>
                  <Input onChange={(event) => this.handItemChange(event, 
                         item)} value={item.value}/>
              </div>
           ))
        }
        </div>
     );
   }
 }

Implementing show total count from an object by passing count as a parameter from main to sub components as described below.

Here is MainComponent.js

import React, { Component } from "react";

import SubComp from "./subcomponent";

class App extends Component {

  getTotalCount = (count) => {
    this.setState({
      total: this.state.total + count
    })
  };

  state = {
    total: 0
  };

  render() {
    const someData = [
      { name: "one", count: 200 },
      { name: "two", count: 100 },
      { name: "three", count: 50 }
    ];
    return (
      <div className="App">
        {someData.map((nameAndCount, i) => {
          return (
            <SubComp
              getTotal={this.getTotalCount}
              name={nameAndCount.name}
              count={nameAndCount.count}
              key={i}
            />
          );
        })}
        <h1>Total Count: {this.state.total}</h1>
      </div>
    );
  }
}

export default App;

And Here is SubComp.js

import React, { Component } from 'react';
export default class SubComp extends Component {

  calculateTotal = () =>{
    this.props.getTotal(this.props.count);
  }

  render() {
    return (
      <div>
        <p onClick={this.calculateTotal}> Name: {this.props.name} || Count: {this.props.count}</p>
      </div>
    )
  }
};

Try to implement above and you will get exact scenario that how pass parameters works in reactjs on any DOM method.


I wrote a wrapper component that can be reused for this purpose that builds on the accepted answers here. If all you need to do is pass a string however, then just add a data-attribute and read it from e.target.dataset (like some others have suggested). By default my wrapper will bind to any prop that is a function and starts with 'on' and automatically pass the data prop back to the caller after all the other event arguments. Although I haven't tested it for performance, it will give you the opportunity to avoid creating the class yourself, and it can be used like this:

const DataButton = withData('button')
const DataInput = withData('input');

or for Components and functions

const DataInput = withData(SomeComponent);

or if you prefer

const DataButton = withData(<button/>)

declare that Outside your container (near your imports)

Here is usage in a container:

import withData from './withData';
const DataInput = withData('input');

export default class Container extends Component {
    state = {
         data: [
             // ...
         ]
    }

    handleItemChange = (e, data) => {
        // here the data is available 
        // ....
    }

    render () {
        return (
            <div>
                {
                    this.state.data.map((item, index) => (
                        <div key={index}>
                            <DataInput data={item} onChange={this.handleItemChange} value={item.value}/>
                        </div>
                    ))
                }
            </div>
        );
    }
}

Here is the wrapper code 'withData.js:

import React, { Component } from 'react';

const defaultOptions = {
    events: undefined,
}

export default (Target, options) => {
    Target = React.isValidElement(Target) ? Target.type : Target;
    options = { ...defaultOptions, ...options }

    class WithData extends Component {
        constructor(props, context){
            super(props, context);
            this.handlers = getHandlers(options.events, this);        
        }

        render() {
            const { data, children, ...props } = this.props;
            return <Target {...props} {...this.handlers} >{children}</Target>;
        }

        static displayName = `withData(${Target.displayName || Target.name || 'Component'})`
    }

    return WithData;
}

function getHandlers(events, thisContext) {
    if(!events)
        events = Object.keys(thisContext.props).filter(prop => prop.startsWith('on') && typeof thisContext.props[prop] === 'function')
    else if (typeof events === 'string')
        events = [events];

    return events.reduce((result, eventType) => {
        result[eventType] = (...args) => thisContext.props[eventType](...args, thisContext.props.data);
        return result;
    }, {});
}

I have below 3 suggestion to this on JSX onClick Events -

  1. Actually, we don't need to use .bind() or Arrow function in our code. You can simple use in your code.

  2. You can also move onClick event from th(or ul) to tr(or li) to improve the performance. Basically you will have n number of "Event Listeners" for your n li element.

    So finally code will look like this:
    <ul onClick={this.onItemClick}>
        {this.props.items.map(item =>
               <li key={item.id} data-itemid={item.id}>
                   ...
               </li>
          )}
    </ul>
    

    // And you can access item.id in onItemClick method as shown below:

    onItemClick = (event) => {
       console.log(e.target.getAttribute("item.id"));
    }
    
  3. I agree with the approach mention above for creating separate React Component for ListItem and List. This make code looks good however if you have 1000 of li then 1000 Event Listeners will be created. Please make sure you should not have much event listener.

    import React from "react";
    import ListItem from "./ListItem";
    export default class List extends React.Component {
    
        /**
        * This List react component is generic component which take props as list of items and also provide onlick
        * callback name handleItemClick
        * @param {String} item - item object passed to caller
        */
        handleItemClick = (item) => {
            if (this.props.onItemClick) {
                this.props.onItemClick(item);
            }
        }
    
        /**
        * render method will take list of items as a props and include ListItem component
        * @returns {string} - return the list of items
        */
        render() {
            return (
                <div>
                  {this.props.items.map(item =>
                      <ListItem key={item.id} item={item} onItemClick={this.handleItemClick}/>
                  )}
                </div>
            );
        }
    
    }
    
    
    import React from "react";
    
    export default class ListItem extends React.Component {
        /**
        * This List react component is generic component which take props as item and also provide onlick
        * callback name handleItemClick
        * @param {String} item - item object passed to caller
        */
        handleItemClick = () => {
            if (this.props.item && this.props.onItemClick) {
                this.props.onItemClick(this.props.item);
            }
        }
        /**
        * render method will take item as a props and print in li
        * @returns {string} - return the list of items
        */
        render() {
            return (
                <li key={this.props.item.id} onClick={this.handleItemClick}>{this.props.item.text}</li>
            );
        }
    }
    

I have added code for onclick event value pass to the method in two ways . 1 . using bind method 2. using arrow(=>) method . see the methods handlesort1 and handlesort

var HeaderRows  = React.createClass({
    getInitialState : function() {
      return ({
        defaultColumns : ["col1","col2","col2","col3","col4","col5" ],
        externalColumns : ["ecol1","ecol2","ecol2","ecol3","ecol4","ecol5" ],

      })
    },
    handleSort:  function(column,that) {
       console.log(column);
       alert(""+JSON.stringify(column));
    },
    handleSort1:  function(column) {
       console.log(column);
       alert(""+JSON.stringify(column));
    },
    render: function () {
        var that = this;
        return(
        <div>
            <div>Using bind method</div>
            {this.state.defaultColumns.map(function (column) {
                return (
                    <div value={column} style={{height : '40' }}onClick={that.handleSort.bind(that,column)} >{column}</div>
                );
            })}
            <div>Using Arrow method</div>

            {this.state.defaultColumns.map(function (column) {
                return (
                    <div value={column} style={{height : 40}} onClick={() => that.handleSort1(column)} >{column}</div>

                );
            })}
            {this.state.externalColumns.map(function (column) {
                // Multi dimension array - 0 is column name
                var externalColumnName = column;
                return (<div><span>{externalColumnName}</span></div>
                );
            })}

        </div>);
    }
});

Below is the example which passes value on onClick event.

I used es6 syntax. remember in class component arrow function does not bind automatically, so explicitly binding in constructor.

class HeaderRows extends React.Component {

    constructor(props) {
        super(props);
        this.handleSort = this.handleSort.bind(this);
    }

    handleSort(value) {
        console.log(value);
    }

    render() {
        return(
            <tr>
                {this.props.defaultColumns.map( (column, index) =>
                    <th value={ column } 
                        key={ index } 
                        onClick={ () => this.handleSort(event.target.value) }>
                        { column }
                    </th>
                )}

                {this.props.externalColumns.map((column, index)  =>
                    <th value ={ column[0] }
                        key={ index }>
                        {column[0]}
                    </th>
                )}
            </tr>
         );
    }
}

I guess you will have to bind the method to the React’s class instance. It’s safer to use a constructor to bind all methods in React. In your case when you pass the parameter to the method, the first parameter is used to bind the ‘this’ context of the method, thus you cannot access the value inside the method.


1. You just have to use an arrow function in the Onclick event like this: 

<th value={column} onClick={() => that.handleSort(theValue)} >{column}</th>

2.Then bind this in the constructor method:
    this.handleSort = this.handleSort.bind(this);

3.And finally get the value in the function:
  handleSort(theValue){
     console.log(theValue);
}

Theres' a very easy way.

 onClick={this.toggleStart('xyz')} . 
  toggleStart= (data) => (e) =>{
     console.log('value is'+data);  
 }

class TableHeader extends Component {
  handleClick = (parameter,event) => {
console.log(parameter)
console.log(event)

  }

  render() {
    return (
      <button type="button" 
onClick={this.handleClick.bind(this,"dataOne")}>Send</button>
    );
  }
}

Coming out of nowhere to this question, but i think .bind will do the trick. Find the sample code below.

const handleClick = (data) => {
    console.log(data)
}

<button onClick={handleClick.bind(null, { title: 'mytitle', id: '12345' })}>Login</button>

Using arrow function :

You must install stage-2:

npm install babel-preset-stage-2 :

class App extends React.Component {
    constructor(props) {
        super(props);
        this.state = {
            value=0
        }
    }

    changeValue = (data) => (e) => {
        alert(data);  //10
        this.setState({ [value]: data })
    }

    render() {
        const data = 10;
        return (
            <div>
                <input type="button" onClick={this.changeValue(data)} />
            </div>
        );
    }
}
export default App; 

There is a couple of ways to pass parameter in event handlers, some are following.

You can use an arrow function to wrap around an event handler and pass parameters:

<button onClick={() => this.handleClick(id)} />

above example is equivalent to calling .bind or you can explicitly call bind.

<button onClick={this.handleClick.bind(this, id)} />

Apart from these two approaches, you can also pass arguments to a function which is defined as a curry function.

handleClick = (id) => () => {
    console.log("Hello, your ticket number is", id)
};

<button onClick={this.handleClick(id)} />

There are 3 ways to handle this :-

  1. Bind the method in constructor as :-

    export class HeaderRows extends Component {
       constructor() {
           super();
           this.handleSort = this.handleSort.bind(this);
       }
    }
    
  2. Use the arrow function while creating it as :-

    handleSort = () => {
        // some text here
    }
    
  3. Third way is this :-

    <th value={column} onClick={() => that.handleSort} >{column}</th>
    

You can use your code like this:

<th value={column} onClick={(e) => that.handleSort(e, column)} >{column}</th>

Here e is for event object, if you want to use event methods like preventDefault() in your handle function or want to get target value or name like e.target.name.


I found the solution of passing param as a tag's attribute quite reasonable.

However it has limitations:

  • Doesn't work properly when list item has other tags (thus event.target might be different to intended)
  • Param could be a string only. Requires serialization and deserialization.

That's why I came up with this library: react-event-param

It:

  • Solves the problem of children by searching for needed attribute in parents whenever needed
  • Automatically serializes and deserializes param
  • Encapsulates the logic of setting and getting. No need to mess with param names

Usage example:

import { setEventParam, getEventParam } from "react-event-param";

class List extends Component {
  onItemClick = e => {
    const index = getEventParam(e.target);
    // Do something with index
  };

  render() {
    return (
      <ul>
        {this.props.items.map((itemText, index) => (
          <li
            key={index}
            {...setEventParam(index)}
            onClick={this.onItemClick}
          >
            {{ itemText }}
          </li>
        ))}
      </ul>
    );
  }
}

export default List;

There were a lot of performance considerations, all in the vacuum.
The issue with this handlers is that you need to curry them in order to incorporate the argument that you can't name in the props.
This means that the component needs a handler for each and every clickable element. Let's agree that for a few buttons this is not an issue, right?
The problem arises when you are handling tabular data with dozens of columns and thousands of rows. There you notice the impact of creating that many handlers.

The fact is, I only need one.
I set the handler at the table level (or UL or OL...), and when the click happens I can tell which was the clicked cell using data available since ever in the event object:

nativeEvent.target.tagName
nativeEvent.target.parentElement.tagName 
nativeEvent.target.parentElement.rowIndex
nativeEvent.target.cellIndex
nativeEvent.target.textContent

I use the tagname fields to check that the click happened in a valid element, for example ignore clicks in THs ot footers.
The rowIndex and cellIndex give the exact location of the clicked cell.
Textcontent is the text of the clicked cell.

This way I don't need to pass the cell's data to the handler, it can self-service it.
If I needed more data, data that is not to be displayed, I can use the dataset attribute, or hidden elements.
With some simple DOM navigation it's all at hand.
This has been used in HTML since ever, since PCs were much easier to bog.


Simple changed is required:

Use <th value={column} onClick={that.handleSort} >{column}</th>

instead of <th value={column} onClick={that.handleSort} >{column}</th>


Use a closure, it result in a clean solution:

<th onClick={this.handleSort(column)} >{column}</th>

handleSort function will return a function that have the value column already set.

handleSort: function(value) { 
    return () => {
        console.log(value);
    }
}

The anonymous function will be called with the correct value when the user click on the th.

Example: https://stackblitz.com/edit/react-pass-parameters-example